Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 1099–1107 | Cite as

Vitamin D status and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 1 diabetes

  • E. Cipponeri
  • N. Vitturi
  • V. Mariano
  • F. Boscari
  • S. Galasso
  • C. Crepaldi
  • G. P. Fadini
  • S. Vigili de Kreutzenberg
  • M. C. Marescotti
  • E. Iori
  • F. Cavallin
  • L. Sartori
  • A. Baritussio
  • A. Avogaro
  • D. BruttomessoEmail author
Original Article



In patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from 10 to 53% and contrasting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may favor liver fat accumulation. Here, we investigated the association between vitamin D status and NAFLD in adults with T1D.


220 consecutive adult T1D patients on multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and not taking calcium or vitamin D supplements were included. Patient characteristics, 25(OH)D serum levels, and metabolic parameters were analyzed. Vitamin D status was defined as sufficiency ( ≥ 75 nmol/L; 30 ng/ml), insufficiency (50–75 nmol/L; 20–30 ng/ml), or deficiency ( < 50 nmol/L; 20 ng/ml). NAFLD was diagnosed at ultrasound examination and graded 0–3.


NAFLD was present in 57 patients (29.5%): 51 grade 1, 5 grade 2, and 1 grade 3. Median 25(OH)D levels were 53 nmol/L (IQR 38–70) in patients with NAFLD and 50 nmol/L (34–69) in patients without (p = 0.46). At multivariable analysis, NAFLD was not associated with 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.42) or vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.55), while BMI (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07–1.27) and serum triglycerides (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03) were independently associated with NAFLD.


Vitamin D status appears to have no link with low-grade NAFLD in patients with type 1 diabetes.


Type 1 diabetes Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Vitamin D Ultrasound 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests for this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All procedures in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Ethical Standards of the institutional and /or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Cipponeri
    • 1
  • N. Vitturi
    • 1
  • V. Mariano
    • 1
  • F. Boscari
    • 1
  • S. Galasso
    • 1
  • C. Crepaldi
    • 1
  • G. P. Fadini
    • 1
  • S. Vigili de Kreutzenberg
    • 1
  • M. C. Marescotti
    • 1
  • E. Iori
    • 1
  • F. Cavallin
    • 2
  • L. Sartori
    • 3
  • A. Baritussio
    • 3
  • A. Avogaro
    • 1
  • D. Bruttomesso
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Metabolic Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly
  2. 2.SolagnaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Clinica Medica 1University of PadovaPadovaItaly

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