Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): Novel Interpretations and Future Directions

Abstract

The functional analysis (FA) methodology was developed to provide an empirical basis for understanding the reinforcers contributing to the maintenance of problem behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple formats have been established to address some areas, such as practicality, efficiency, and safety. We reviewed the research on a new replication and extension of the standard FA format, the interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) and its subsequent treatment. We discuss the efficiency and effectiveness of the IISCA across various populations, settings, topographies of problem behaviors, and maintaining functions across 17 studies. Common treatment trends, novel developments, and other critical intervention components are also reviewed. We provide suggestions for future directions and guidelines for practitioners when considering the use of the IISCA.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

*References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the review.

  1. *Beaulieu, L., Van Nostrand, M. E., Williams, A. L., & Herscovitch, B. (2018). Incorporating interview-informed functional analyses into practice. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11, 385–389. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0247-7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Beavers, G. A., Iwata, B. A., & Lerman, D. C. (2013). Thirty years of research on the functional analysis of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Borrero, C. S., & Borrero, J. C. (2008). Descriptive and experimental analyses of potential precursors to problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 83–96. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2008.41-83.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. *Fisher, W. W., Greer, B. D., Romani, P. W., Zangrillo, A. N., & Owen, T. M. (2016). Comparisons of synthesized and individual reinforcement contingencies during functional analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 596–616. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.314.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. *Ghaemmaghami, M., Hanley, G. P., & Jessel, J. (2016). Contingencies promote delay tolerance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 548–575. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.333.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Ghaemmaghami, M., Hanley, G. P., & Jessel, J. (in press). Functional communication training: From efficacy to effectiveness. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

  7. *Ghaemmaghami, M., Hanley, G. P., Jessel, J., & Landa, L. (2018). Shaping complex communication responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51, 502–520. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.468.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. *Ghaemmaghami, M., Hanley, G. P., Jin, S. C., & Vanselow, N. R. (2015). Affirming control by multiple reinforcers via progressive treatment analysis. Behavioral Interventions, 31, 70–86. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Guy, W. (1976). ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. Rockville, MD: NIMH Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hagopian, L. P., Rooker, G. W., Jessel, J., & DeLeon, I. G. (2013). Initial functional analysis outcomes and modifications in pursuit of differentiation: A summary of 176 outpatient cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 88–100. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.25.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Hanley, G. P. (2012). Functional assessment of problem behavior: Dispelling myths, overcoming implementation obstacles, and developing new lore. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 54–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391818.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. *Hanley, G. P., Jin, C. S., Vanselow, N. R., & Hanratty, L. A. (2014). Producing meaningful improvements in problem behavior of children with autism via synthesized analyses and treatments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 16–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.106.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Hayes, S. C., Nelson, R. O., & Jarrett, R. B. (1987). The treatment utility of assessment: A functional approach to evaluating assessment quality. American Psychologist, 42, 963–974. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.42.11.963.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. *Herman, C., Healy, O., & Lydon, S. (2018). An interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis to inform the treatment of challenging behavior in a young child with autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 21, 202–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/17518423.2018.1437839.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197–209. (Reprinted from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20, 1982). https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1994.27-197.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Dorsey, M. F., Zarcone, J. R., Vollmer, T. R., Smith, R. G., . . . Goh, H. L. (1994). The functions of self-injurious behavior: An experimental-epidemiological analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 215–240. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1994.27-215

  17. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Kissel, R. C., Nau, P. A., & Farber, J. M. (1990). The Self-Injury Trauma (SIT) Scale: A method for quantifying surface tissue damage caused by self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1990.23-99.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. *Jessel, J., Hanley, G. P., & Ghaemmaghami, M. (2016). Interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis: Thirty replications and reanalysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 576–595. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.316.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. *Jessel, J., Ingvarsson, E. T., Metras, R., Kirk, H., & Whipple, R. (2018). Achieving socially significant reductions in problem behavior following the interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis: A summary of 25 outpatient applications. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51, 130–157. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.436.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. *Jessel, J., Ingvarsson, E. T., Metras, R., Whipple, R., Kirk, H., & Solsbery, L. (2018). Treatment of elopement following a latency-based interview-informed, synthesized contingency analysis. Behavioral Interventions, 33, 271–283. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1525.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Jessel, J., Metras, R., Hanley, G. P., Jessel, C., & Ingvarsson, E. T. (2019). Evaluating the boundaries of analytic efficiency and control: A consecutive controlled case series of 26 functional analyses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.544.

  22. *Lambert, J. M., Staubitz, J. E., Torelli Roane, J., Houchins-Juárez, N. J., Juárez, A. P., Sanders, K. B., & Warren, Z. E. (2017). Outcome summaries of latency-based functional analyses conducted in hospital inpatient units. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 487–494. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.399.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Oliver, A. C., Pratt, L. A., & Normand, M. P. (2015). A survey of FBA methods used by behavior analysts in practice. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48, 817–829. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.256.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Querim, A. C., Iwata, B. A., Roscoe, E. M., Schlichenmeyer, K. J., Virues Ortega, J., & Hurl, K. E. (2013). Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 47–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Rose, J. C., & Beaulieu, L. (2019). Assessing the generality and durability of interview-informed functional analyses and treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 52, 271-285. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.504.

  26. *Santiago, J. L., Hanley, G. P., Moore, K., & Jin, C. S. (2015). The generality of interview-informed functional analyses: Systematic replication in school and home. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 797–811. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2617-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology (Vol. 5). New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Slaton, J. D., & Hanley, G. P. (2018). Nature and scope of synthesis in functional analysis and treatment of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51, 943–973. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.498.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. *Slaton, J. D., Hanley, G. P., & Raftery, K. J. (2017). Interview-informed functional analyses: A comparison of synthesized and isolated components. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 252–277. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.384.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Smith, R. G., & Churchill, R. M. (2002). Identification of environmental determinants of behavior disorders through functional analysis of precursor behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2002.35-125.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Smith, R. G., Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., & Zarcone, J. R. (1993). Experimental analysis and treatment of multiply controlled self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 183–196. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1993.26-183.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. *Strand, R. C., & Eldevik, S. (2017). Improvements in problem behavior in a child with autism spectrum diagnosis through synthesized analysis and treatment: A replication in an EIBI home program. Behavioral Interventions, 33, 102–111. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. *Strohmeier, C. W., Murphy, A., & O’Connor, J. T. (2016). Parent-informed test-control functional analysis and treatment of problem behavior related to combined establishing operations. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 20, 247–252. https://doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2015.1133723.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. *Taylor, S. A., Phillips, K. J., & Gertzog, M. G. (2018). Use of synthesized analysis and informed treatment to promote school reintegration. Behavioral Interventions, 33, 364–379. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1640.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Thomason-Sassi, J. L., Iwata, B. A., Neidert, P. L., & Roscoe, E. M. (2011). Response latency as an index of response strength during functional analyses of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 51–67. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-51.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author Note

The authors would like to thank Mary Jane Weiss and Sarah Frampton for their critical feedback and insight on previous versions of this manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lesley A. Shawler.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

This manuscript has not been previously published and has not been or will not be submitted elsewhere during the review process.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Coffey, A.L., Shawler, L.A., Jessel, J. et al. Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): Novel Interpretations and Future Directions. Behav Analysis Practice 13, 217–225 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00348-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Functional analysis
  • Function-based treatment
  • IISCA
  • Synthesized contingencies