Asian, Latinx, or Multiracial? Assessing Filipinxs’ Health Conditions and Outcomes by Aggregate Ethnic Category



Filipinxs are the second-largest Asian subgroup in the USA. While Filipinxs are most often considered Asian when constructing aggregate ethnic categories, recent research has identified a trend of a small portion of Filipinxs identifying as Latinx or multiracial. However, little research had addressed how identification with different aggregate ethnic categories may have implications for identifying health disparities among Filipinxs and how these compare to non-Hispanic whites.


Bivariate and multivariable regression analyses using 2011–2018 California Health Interview Survey data, comparing Asian Filipinxs, Latinx Filipinxs, and multiracial Filipinxs.


In bivariate analyses, Asian Filipinxs had a higher prevalence of diabetes than Latinx or multiracial Filipinxs. After controlling for sociodemographics, Latinx Filipinxs had significantly lower odds of having diabetes or heart disease than Asian Filipinxs. Compared to non-Latinx Whites, Asian Filipinxs reported higher odds of being in fair/poor health, obese or overweight, high blood pressure, and diabetes, multiracial Filipinxs reported higher odds of being obese or overweight, and Latinx Filipinxs reported lower odds of heart disease.


These findings suggest emerging differences in health linked to identification with different ethnic categories, underscoring the need to investigate nuances among Filipinxs in future research as well as highlighting the utility of emerging sociological insights in health research.

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Data Availability

All analyses utilized the public use files for the 2011–2018 cycles of CHIS.

Code Availability

The Stata code used to produce these analyses is available upon request from the corresponding author.


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Ninez A. Ponce was supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The authors would like to thank Quinn Matos for providing helpful thoughts on this paper and Daniel Kleinfelder for conversations that helped shape initial ideas.

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Correspondence to Alexander C. Adia.

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The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare; at time of publication, ACA was employed by a for-profit healthcare consulting firm.


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Adia, A.C., Restar, A.J., Nazareno, J. et al. Asian, Latinx, or Multiracial? Assessing Filipinxs’ Health Conditions and Outcomes by Aggregate Ethnic Category. J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities (2021).

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  • Filipino American
  • Filipinx
  • Identity
  • Ethnicity and race
  • Health disparities