Dietary Patterns Among Overweight and Obese African-American Women Living in the Rural South
- 84 Downloads
Obesity and chronic diseases disproportionately affect African-American women in the rural South (US) and may be influenced by adherence to a typical Southern-style diet. There is a need to examine dietary patterns of this population and to determine if consumption of nutritionally rich foods like nuts is associated with consumption of other nutritious foods. The objectives of this study were to identify (1) dietary patterns of overweight/obese African-American women in the rural South; (2) the role that nuts play in the diet; (3) and adherence to federal food group recommendations across dietary patterns.
Secondary data analysis of two baseline 24-h dietary recalls was performed on 383 overweight/obese African-American women enrolled in a weight loss intervention in Alabama and Mississippi between 2011 and 2013. Cluster analysis identified dietary patterns. t tests and chi-square tests tested demographic and dietary differences across clusters. The proportion of women in each cluster who met federal recommendations for fruit, vegetable, nuts, added sugar, and sodium intake was calculated.
Two dietary patterns were found. Nut intake frequency was higher in cluster 2 (P < .001), which was characterized by a higher intake frequency of fruits and vegetables, but high mean daily intake of added sugar (12.26 ± 7.67 tsp) and sodium (2800 ± 881 mg). Ninety-two percent of participants in this cluster consumed red/processed meats daily.
Even among women in this population who consume a more plant-based dietary pattern containing nuts, there is still a need to decrease intake of added sugar, sodium, and red meat.
KeywordsDiet patterns Nuts African-American Women Rural health
The project described was supported by Grant Number 1U54CA153719 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NCI or CRCHD. Recognition and appreciation is provided to all of the Deep South Network for Cancer Control staff (i.e., County Coordinators, Regional Coordinators, and Central Office personnel). A special thanks to the Community Health Advisors trained as Research Partners and study participants who helped to make all of the research possible.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
SS, SJ, BB, TLC, PCL, and MLB declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health of black or African-American non-Hispanic population. 2015. [cited 2015 July].Google Scholar
- 4.Friday L. Exploring the causes of black women’s obesity. 2012. Available from: https://www.bu.edu/today/2012/exploring-the-causes-of-black-womens-obesity/.
- 5.Food Research and Action Center. Obesity in the U.S. 2016. Available from: http://frac.org/initiatives/hunger-and-obesity/obesity-in-the-us/.
- 6.National Cancer Institute. Obesity and cancer risk. 2012. [cited 2015 July 15]; Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/obesity/obesity-fact-sheet.
- 7.American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures for African Americans, 2013–2014. 2013. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-036921.pdf.
- 10.Hu FS, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: a prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1998;317.Google Scholar
- 13.Kang MP, Park YH, Baik HW, Paik HY, Joung H. Grains, nuts and fruits dietary pattern is associated with reduced likelihood of having metabolic syndrome. FASEB J. 2012;26(SIb363).Google Scholar
- 17.United States Department of Agriculture. Dietary guidelines. 2015. [cited 2015 July 15]; Available from: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/dietary-guidelines.html.
- 30.Diet Health. African-American diet. 2015. [cited 2015 July 15]; Available from: http://diet.com/g/africanamerican-diet.
- 31.African-American Registry. Soul food: a brief history. 2013. [cited 2015 July 15]; Available from: http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/soul-food-brief-history
- 33.National Peanut Board. Peanut Country, U.S.A. 2014. Available from: http://nationalpeanutboard.org/the-facts/peanut-country-u-s-a/.
- 34.Brinegar J. Pecans—the South’s favorite nut. 2014. [cited 2015 July 15]; Available from: http://courier-tribune.com/thrive-magazine/pecans-south-s-favorite-nut.
- 35.Browne C. Pecan industry in Alabama. In: Encyclopedia of Alabama. 2008.Google Scholar
- 39.National Cancer Institute. ASA24. 2015. [cited 2015 May 6]; Available from: http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/asa24/.
- 40.Bowman SA, Friday JE, Moshfegh AJ. MyPyramid equivalents database, 2.0 for USDA survey foods, 2003–2004 (online). Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2008.Google Scholar
- 43.Parker R. Variable clustering in JMP. 2013. Available from: http://blogs.sas.com/content/jmp/2013/03/13/variable-clustering-in-jmp/
- 45.Ward Jr J. Hierarchical grouping to optimize an object function. J Am Stat Assoc. 2012;58(301):1963.Google Scholar
- 46.JMP. Hierarchical clustering. 2016. Available from: http://www.jmp.com/support/help/Hierarchical_Clustering.shtml.
- 49.United States Department of Health and Human Services. Summary of qualified health claims subject to enforcement discretion. 2014. [cited 2015 July 15]; Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/LabelingNutrition/ucm073992.htm#cardio.
- 50.United States Department of Agriculture. Salt and sodium: 10 tips to help you cut back. 2015. [cited 2015; Available from: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/downloads/TenTips/DGTipsheet14SaltAndSodium.pdf.
- 51.SAS Institute, Inc. New features in JMP 12 and JMP Pro 12. [cited 2017 January 31]. Available from: http://www.jmp.com/content/dam/jmp/documents/en/software/jmp/jmp12/new-features-in-jmp-and-jmp-pro12.pdf.