Advertisement

Information Technology & Tourism

, Volume 18, Issue 1–4, pp 85–112 | Cite as

Psychological antecedents of mobile consumer behaviour and implications for customer journeys in tourism

  • Thomas Wozniak
  • Dorothea Schaffner
  • Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva
  • Vera Lenz-Kesekamp
Original Research
  • 387 Downloads

Abstract

As online activities increasingly shift to mobile devices, organizations especially in tourism must understand which factors drive and inhibit mobile consumer behaviour, if they want to remain competitive. Thus, this paper analyses the effects of psychological factors on mobile consumer behaviour. Drawing on multiple established theories, four psychological factors are identified: (1) smartphone self-efficacy, (2) mobile-specific innovativeness, (3) mobile users’ information privacy concerns, and (4) personal attachment to smartphone. Using a structural equation modeling approach with a large-scale consumer sample, the effects of these factors on two fundamental types of mobile consumer behaviour are analysed: behaviour along the mobile customer journey and consumers’ willingness to disclose personal data in return for personalized mobile experiences. The results confirm the relevance of the identified factors for mobile consumer behaviour. These findings have several implications for the design and management of mobile touch points in tourism.

Keywords

Mobile consumer behaviour Mobile customer journey Mobile touch points Smartphone Mobile marketing Smart tourism 

References

  1. Abolfazli S, Sanaei Z, Gani A, Xia F, Yang LT (2014) Rich mobile applications: genesis, taxonomy, and open issues. J Netw Comput Appl 40(1):345–362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2013.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal R, Prasad J (1998) A conceptual and operational definition of personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology. Inf Syst Res 9(2):204–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguirre E, Roggeveen AL, Grewal D, Wetzels M (2016) The personalization–privacy paradox: implications for new media. J Consum Mark 33(2):98–110.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-06-2015-1458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderl E, Schumann JH, Kunz W (2016) Helping firms reduce complexity in multichannel online data: a new taxonomy-based approach for customer journeys. J Retail 92(2):185–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2015.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anuar FI, Gretzel U (2011) Privacy concerns in the context of location-based services for tourism. E-Rev Tour Res ENTER 2011:1–6Google Scholar
  6. Bagozzi RP, Yi T (1988) On the evaluation of structural equation models. J Acad Mark Sci 16(1):74–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura A (1977) Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84(2):191–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura A (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  9. Barwise P, Strong C (2002) Permission-based mobile advertising. J Interact Mark 16(1):14–24.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.10000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer C, Strauss C (2016) Location-based advertising on mobile devices. Manag Rev Q 66(3):159–194.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11301-015-0118-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumgartner H, Homburg C (1996) Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing and consumer research: a review. Int J Res Mark 13(2):139–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(95)00038-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellman S, Potter R, Treleaven-Hassard S, Robinson JA, Varan D (2011) The effectiveness of branded mobile phone apps. J Interact Mark 25(4):191–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2011.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biljon J Van, Kotzé P (2008) Cultural factors in a mobile phone adoption and usage model. J Univ Comput Sci 14(16):2650–2679.  https://doi.org/10.3217/jucs-014-16-2650 Google Scholar
  14. Binkhorst E, Den Dekker T (2009) Agenda for co-creation tourism experience research. J Hosp Mark Manag 18(2–3):311–327.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19368620802594193 Google Scholar
  15. Buhalis D, Foerste M (2015) SoCoMo marketing for travel and tourism: empowering co-creation of value. J Destin Mark Manag 4(3):151–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.04.001 Google Scholar
  16. Chaffey D (2017) Mobile marketing statistics compilation. https://www.smartinsights.com/mobile-marketing/mobile-marketing-analytics/mobile-marketing-statistics/. Accessed 4 Jun 2017
  17. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  18. Compeau D, Higgins C (1995) Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test. Manag Inf Syst 19(2):189–211.  https://doi.org/10.2307/249688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manag Sci 35(8):982–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.8.982 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Haan E, Kannan PK Verhoef PC, Wiesel T (2015) The role of mobile devices in the online customer journey. In: MSI working paper no. 15–124Google Scholar
  21. de Haan E, Wiesel T, Pauwels K (2016) The effectiveness of different forms of online advertising for purchase conversion in a multiple-channel attribution framework. Int J Res Mark 33(3):491–507.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2015.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Reuver M, Nikouand S, Bouwman H (2016) Domestication of smartphones and mobile applications: a quantitative mixed-method study. Mobile Media Commun.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2050157916649989 Google Scholar
  23. Dey AK, Abowd GD (2000) Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. In: Proceedings of the CHI 2000 workshop on the what, who, where, when and how of context awareness, vol 4, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  24. Dinev T, Hart P (2006a) An extended privacy calculus transactions model for e-commerce transactions. Inf Syst Res 17(1):61–80.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1060.0080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dinev T, Hart P (2006b) Internet privacy concerns and social awareness as determinants of intention to transact. Int J Electron Commer 10(2):7–29.  https://doi.org/10.2753/JEC1086-4415100201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dischler J (2015) Building for the next moment. http://adwords.blogspot.ch/2015/05/building-for-next-moment.html. Accessed 5 Jul 2015
  27. eMarketer (2015) By 2016, most digital travel bookers will use mobile devices. http://www.emarketer.com/Article/By-2016-Most-Digital-Travel-Bookers-Will-Use-Mobile-Devices/1013248. Accessed 10 Sep 2016
  28. eMarketer (2016a) Smartphones lead mobile bookings for hotel, flights. http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Smartphones-Lead-Mobile-Bookings-Hotel-Flights/1014080. Accessed 10 Sep 2016
  29. eMarketer (2016b) What’s going on with beacons? http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Whats-Going-On-with-Beacons/1014218. Accessed 24 Aug 2016
  30. Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981) Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J Mark Res 18(1):39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gao T, Rohm AJ, Sultan F, Pagani M (2013) Consumers un-tethered: a three-market empirical study of consumers’ mobile marketing acceptance. J Bus Res 66(12):2536–2544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.05.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gefen D, Straub D (2005) A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS-graph: tutorial and annotated example. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 16(1):5Google Scholar
  33. Godin S (1999) Permission marketing: turning strangers into friends and friends into customers. Simon and Schuster, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldsmith RE, Hofacker CF (1991) Measuring consumer innovativeness. J Acad Mark Sci 19(3):209–221.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02726497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Google (2013) Mobile purchase journey. http://www.google.co.uk/think/tools/mobile-purchase-journey.html. Accessed 2 Apr 2015
  36. Google (2016) How micro-moments are reshaping the travel customer journey. https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/marketing-resources/micro-moments/micro-moments-travel-customer-journey/. Accessed 5 June 2017
  37. Google (2017a) “Customer journey”—explore—Google trends. https://trends.google.com/trends/. Accessed 28 May 2017
  38. Google (2017b) “Customer journey”—Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.ch. Accessed 28 May 2017
  39. Gotardi L, Senn Y, Cholakova E, Liebrich A, Wozniak T (2015) How do millennial travellers use their mobile devices in a city destination ?—empirical evidence from Switzerland. E-Rev Tour Res ENTER 2015:1–5Google Scholar
  40. Gretzel U, Fesenmaier DR, O’Leary JT (2006) The transformation of consumer behaviour. In: Buhalis D, Costa C (eds) Tourism business frontiers. Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA, pp 9–18Google Scholar
  41. Gretzel U, Sigala M, Xiang Z, Koo C (2015) Smart tourism: foundations and developments. Electron Mark 25(3):179–188.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-015-0196-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Habegger B, Hasan O, Brunie L, Bennani N, Kosch H, Damiani E (2014) Personalization vs. privacy in big data analysis. Int J Big Data 1(1):25–35Google Scholar
  43. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE (2010) Multivariate data analysis vectors, 7th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  44. hitwise (2016) Mobile search: topics and themes. http://hitwise.connexity.com/070116_MobileSearchReport_CD_US.html
  45. Hu L, Bentler PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model 6(1):1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. John OP, Srivastava S (1999) The Big Five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In: Pervin LA, John OP (eds) Handbook of personality: theory and research, 2nd edn. Guilford Press, New York, pp 102–138Google Scholar
  47. Karjaluoto H, Lehto H, Leppaniemi M, Jayawardhena C (2008) Exploring gender influence on customer’s intention to engage permission-based mobile marketing. Electron Mark 18(3):242–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10196780802265793 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keith MJ, Thompson SC, Hale J, Lowry PB, Greer C (2013) Information disclosure on mobile devices: re-examining privacy calculus with actual user behavior. Int J Hum Comput Stud 71(12):1163–1173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2013.08.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keith MJ, Babb JS, Lowry PB, Furner CP, Abdullat A (2015) The role of mobile-computing self-efficacy in consumer information disclosure. Inf Syst J 25(6):637–667.  https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kranzbühler A-M, Kleijnen MHP, Morgan RE, Teerling M (2017) The multilevel nature of customer experience research: an integrative review and research agenda. Int J Manag Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12140 Google Scholar
  51. Leavitt C, Walton J (1975) Development of a scale for innovativeness. Adv Consum Res 2(1):545–554Google Scholar
  52. Lemon KN, Verhoef PC (2016) Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. J Mark 80(6):69–96.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.15.0420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Malhotra NK, Kim SS, Agarwal J (2004) Internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC): the construct, the scale, and a causal model. Inf Syst Res 15(4):336–355.  https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1040.0032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Martin K (2016) Understanding privacy online: development of a social contract approach to privacy. J Bus Ethics 137(3):551–569.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2565-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Martin KD, Murphy PE (2016) The role of data privacy in marketing. J Acad Mark Sci 45:1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-016-0495-4 Google Scholar
  56. Morosan C (2014) Toward an integrated model of adoption of mobile phones for purchasing ancillary services in air travel. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 26(2):246–271.  https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-11-2012-0221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mort GS, Drennan J (2002) Mobile digital technology: emerging issues for marketing. J Database Mark 10(1):9–23.  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jdm.3240090 Google Scholar
  58. Netemeyer RG, Bearden WO, Sharma S (2003) Scaling procedures: issues and applications. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. NET-Metrix (2017) NET-metrix-base. https://www.net-metrix.ch/produkte/net-metrix-base. Accessed 20 Oct 2017
  60. Neuhofer B, Buhalis D, Ladkin A (2012) Conceptualising technology enhanced destination experiences. J Destin Mark Manag 1(1–2):36–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2012.08.001 Google Scholar
  61. Nunnally JC (1978) Psychometric theory, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  62. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH (1994) Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  63. Nysveen H, Pedersen PE, Thorbjørnsen H (2005) Intentions to use mobile services: antecedents and cross-service comparisons. J Acad Mark Sci 33(3):330–346.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070305276149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Park S, Huang Y (2017) Motivators and inhibitors in booking a hotel via smartphones. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 29(1):161–178.  https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2015-0103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Park YJ, Mo Jang S (2014) Understanding privacy knowledge and skill in mobile communication. Comput Hum Behav 38:296–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Patricio L, Fisk RP, Falcao e Cunha J, Constantine L (2011) Multilevel service design: from customer value constellation to service experience blueprinting. J Serv Res 14(2):180–200.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670511401901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pedersen P (2005) Adoption of mobile internet services: an exploratory study of mobile commerce early adopters. J Organ Comput Electron Commer 15(2):203–222.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327744joce1503_2 Google Scholar
  68. Pew Research Center (2015) The smartphone difference. http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
  69. Pew Research Center (2016) Smartphone ownership and internet usage continues to climb in emerging economies. http://www.pewglobal.org/2016/02/22/smartphone-ownership-and-internet-usage-continues-to-climb-in-emerging-economies/. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
  70. Prahalad CK, Ramaswamy V (2004) Co-creation experiences: the next practice in value creation. J Interact Mark 18(3):5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rogers EM (1983) Diffusion of innovations, 3rd edn. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Shankar V, Balasubramanian S (2009) Mobile marketing: a synthesis and prognosis. J Interact Mark 23(2):118–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2009.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shankar V, Kleijnen M, Ramanathan S, Rizley R, Holland S, Morrissey S (2016) Mobile shopper marketing: key issues, current insights, and future research avenues avenues. J Interact Mark 34:37–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2016.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Silverstone R, Haddon L (1996) Design and the domestication of information and communication technologies: technical change and everyday life. In: Mansell R, Silverstone R (eds) Communication by design: the politics of information and communication technologies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 44–74Google Scholar
  75. Smith HJ, Milberg SJ, Burke SJ (1996) Information privacy: measuring individuals’ concerns about organizational practices. Manag Inf Syst Q 20(2):167–196.  https://doi.org/10.2307/249477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smith H, Dinev T, Xu H (2011) Information privacy research: an interdisciplinary review. MIS Q 35(4):989–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Statista (2017) Smartphone functions and apps used most frequently in the U.S. 2017. https://www.statista.com/statistics/716019/smartphone-functions-and-apps-used-most-frequently-in-the-us/. Accessed 14 Oct 2017
  78. Stein A, Ramaseshan B (2016) Towards the identification of customer experience touch point elements. J Retail Consum Serv 30:8–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Straker K, Wrigley C, Rosemann M (2015) Typologies and touchpoints: designing multi-channel digital strategies. J Res Interact Mark 9(2):110–128.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-06-2014-0039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Suki NM, Suki NM (2017) Flight ticket booking app on mobile devices: examining the determinants of individual intention to use. J Air Transp Manag 62:146–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2017.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sun H (2004) Expanding the scope of localization: a cultural usability perspective on mobile text messaging use in American and Chinese contexts. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Sutanto J, Palme E, Tan C-H, Phang CW (2013) Addressing the personalization-privacy paradox: an empirical assessment from a field experiment on smartphone users. MIS Q 37(4):1141–1164.  https://doi.org/10.25300/MISQ/2013/37.4.07 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Swiss Federal Statistics Office (2016) Travel behaviour. https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/en/home/statistics/tourism/travel-behaviour.html. Accessed 3 Sep 2017
  84. The World Bank (2016) GDP per capita (current US$). http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?year_high_desc=true. Accessed 27 Aug 2016
  85. Tussyadiah IP (2015) The influence of innovativeness on on-site smartphone use among American travelers: implications for context-based push marketing. J Travel Tour Mark 33(6):806–823.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2015.1068263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vallespín M, Molinillo S, Muñoz-Leiva F (2017) Segmentation and explanation of smartphone use for travel planning based on socio-demographic and behavioral variables. Ind Manag Data Syst 117(3):605–619.  https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-03-2016-0089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Venkatesh V, Bala H (2008) Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decis Sci 39(2):273–315.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2008.00192.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vincent J (2005) Are people affected by their attachment to their mobile phone ? In: Nyiri K (ed) A sense of place: the global and the local in mobile communications. Passagen, Vienna, pp 221–230Google Scholar
  89. Vincent J (2006) Emotional attachment and mobile phones. Knowl Technol Policy 19(1):39–44.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12130-006-1013-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang D, Xiang Z, Fesenmaier DR (2014) Adapting to the mobile world: a model of smartphone use. Ann Tour Res 48:11–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang D, Xiang Z, Fesenmaier DR (2016a) Smartphone use in everyday life and travel. J Travel Res 55(1):52–63.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287514535847 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang T, Duong TD, Chen CC (2016b) Intention to disclose personal information via mobile applications: a privacy calculus perspective. Int J Inf Manag 36(4):531–542.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2016.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wehmeyer K (2007) Assessing users’ attachment to their mobile devices. In: Conference proceedings—6th international conference on the management of mobile business (ICMB 2007), Toronto, Canada, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  94. Westin AF (1967) Privacy and freedom. Atheneum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Wozniak T, Schaffner D (2016) Innovativeness versus privacy: psychological antecedents of the permission-based acceptance of mobile marketing. In: 2016 winter marketing academic conference proceedings, Las Vegas, NV, p C-112-C-120Google Scholar
  96. Wozniak T, Liebrich A, Senn Y, Zemp M (2016) Alpine tourists’ willingness to engage in virtual co-creation of experiences. In: Inversini A, Schegg R (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2016, pp 281–294. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28231-2_21
  97. Xu H, Gupta S (2009) The effects of privacy concerns and personal innovativeness on potential and experienced customers’ adoption of location-based services. Electron Mark 19(2–3):137–149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-009-0012-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Xu H, Luo (Robert) X, Carroll JM, Rosson MB (2011) The personalization privacy paradox: an exploratory study of decision making process for location-aware marketing. Decis Support Syst 51(1):42–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2010.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Xu R, Frey RM, Fleisch E, Ilic A (2016) Understanding the impact of personality traits on mobile app adoption—insights from a large-scale field study. Comput Hum Behav 62:244–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LINK Marketing ServicesZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Communication and Marketing, Lucerne School of BusinessLucerneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute for Media and Communications ManagementUniversity of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations