Foetal Venous Anomalies: Experience in a Primary Referral Unit


Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital anomalies reported. Incidence of CHD is 8 to 9 per 1000 live births in published data worldwide (Chaudhary and Patil in J Fetal Med 5:221, 2018; Hoffman and Kaplan in J Am Coll Cardiol 39(12):1890–1900, 2002; Khalil et al. in Indian Pediatr 31(5):519–527, 1994; Wanni et al. in Heart India 2(3):76–95, 2014). Association of venous anomalies is known and has a significant impact on the perinatal and postnatal outcome. There is no published data about the incidence and spectrum of foetal venous anomalies in India. We tried to find out the incidence and spectrum of foetal venous anomalies in second and third trimester low risk population during routine ultrasound examination in our primary referral unit. 61 foetuses out of 19,929 were found to have venous anomalies with an incidence of 3 per 1000 s and third trimester pregnancies. Persistent left superior vena cava was the most common anomaly seen followed by umbilical vein varyx and absent ductus venosus. 46% of cases showed associated cardiac and extracardiac anomalies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Hofstaetter C, Plath H, Hansmann M. Prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities of the fetal venous system. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;15(3):231–41.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Gustapane S, Leombroni M, Khalil A, Giacci F, Marrone L, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of persistent left superior vena cava on prenatal ultrasound: associated anomalies, diagnostic accuracy and postnatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016;48(6):701–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Moon SK, Cho JY, Kim SH, Lee YH, Song MJ, Moon MH. Imaging findings of various venous anomalies in the fetal liver in antenatal and postnatal assessment: a pictorial review. ECR 2010/C-2896.

  4. 4.

    Shah D, Shah N. Sonographic evaluation of umbilical vein. J Fetal Med. 2018;5:185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carvalho JS, Allan LD, Chaoui R, Copel JA, DeVore GR, et al. ISUOG practice guidelines (updated): sonographic screening examination of the fetal heart. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41(3):348–59.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practice guideline for performance of fetal echocardiography. J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32(6):1067–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Rychik J, Ayres N, Cuneo B, Gotteiner N, Hornberger L, et al. American Society of Echocardiography guidelines and standards for performance of the fetal echocardiogram. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004;17(7):803–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Chaudhary YS, Patil SS. Foetal cardiac anomalies: experience in a primary referral centre. J Fetal Med. 2018;5:221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(12):1890–900.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Khalil A, Aggarwal R, Thirupuram S, Arora R. Incidence of congenital heart disease among hospital live births in India. Indian Pediatr. 1994;31(5):519–27.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Wanni KA, Shahzad N, Ashraf M, Ahmed K, Jan M, Rasool S. Prevalence and spectrum of congenital heart diseases in children. Heart India. 2014;2(3):76–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank, Dr. Shrikant T. Ambardekar. M.D., Ultrasound Clinic, Pimpri, Pune 18. (MH) India, for comments that greatly improved the manuscript.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yogeshkumar S. Chaudhary.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chaudhary, Y.S., Patil, S.S. Foetal Venous Anomalies: Experience in a Primary Referral Unit. J. Fetal Med. 7, 139–144 (2020).

Download citation


  • Ultrasound (US) examination
  • Foetal venous anomalies
  • Incidence and spectrum
  • India