In this study, a robust macroscale liquid superlubricity with a coefficient of friction of 0.004 was achieved by introducing molybdenum carbide (Mo2CTx) MXene nanoparticles as lubricating additives in a lithium hexafluorophosphate-based ionic liquid at Si3N4—sapphire interfaces. The maximal contact pressure in the superlubricity state could reach 1.42 GPa, which far exceeds the limit of the superlubricity regime in previous studies. The results indicate that a composite tribofilm (mainly containing molybdenum oxide and phosphorus oxide) that formed at the interface by a tribochemical reaction contributed to the excellent antiwear performance. Furthermore, the extremely low shear strength of the tribofilm and the interlayers of Mo2CTx MXene contributed to the superlubricity. This work demonstrates the promising potential of Mo2CTx MXene in improving superlubricity properties, which could accelerate the application of superlubricity in mechanical systems.
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This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2020YFA0711003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 52005290, 51775295, and 52175174), and the Open Research Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments (No. KF202004).
Declaration of competing interest
The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
Shuang YI. He received his B.S. degree from Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, China, in 2014, and got his Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia, in 2019. He worked as a Shuimu Scholar fellowship at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, from 2019 to 2021. He is currently an assistant professor at Chongqing University, Chongqing, China. His research interests are the technology of 2D material synthesis and preparation, the theory of liquid—solid lubrication, and the mechanism of superlubricity.
Yitong GUO. She received her B.S. and M.S. degrees in the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, China. She is currently a Ph.D. candidate with the supervision of Prof. Aiguo Zhou at Henan Polytechnic University. Her main research focuses on the properties of MAX-phases and the synthesis and applications of MXenes.
Jinjin LI. He received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, in 2009, and his Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2014. He is currently an assistant professor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. His major research area includes solid and liquid superlubricity, nanotribology, and friction theory. He has published more than 30 papers on the international journals (21 papers as the first author). He has been awarded the 4th Hiwin award for outstanding doctoral dissertation, first prize for outstanding doctoral dissertation, and outstanding postdoctor in Tsinghua University.
Yuxin ZHANG. He received his B.Eng. and M.Eng degrees in chemical engineering from Tianjin University, China, in 2000 and 2003, respectively. He received his Ph.D. degree in chemistry and biomolecular engineering from the National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore, in 2008, and continued to work as a research fellow in Prof. Huachun ZENG’s group at NUS until 2009. His research interests involve the preparation and application of nanomaterials, synthesis and morphology control of electrode materials in supercapacitor, and advanced design and performance research of photocatalytic materials.
Aiguo ZHOU. He received his B.S. degree from Wuhan University, China, in 1997; M.S. degree from Tsinghua University, China, in 2003; and Ph.D. degree in materials engineering from Drexel University, USA, in 2008. He joined Henan Polytechnic University in 1997. His current position is a professor, and his research area is the process and properties of layered ceramic MAX phases and 2D MXenes.
Jianbin LUO. He received his B.S. degree from Northeastern University, China, in 1982, and got his M.S. degree from Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, China, in 1988. In 1994, he received his Ph.D. degree from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and then joined the faculty of Tsinghua University. Prof. Jianbin LUO is an Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a Yangtze River Scholar Distinguished Professor of Tsinghua University. He was awarded the STLE International Award (2013), the Chinese National Technology Progress Prize (2008), the Chinese National Natural Science Prize (2001), and the Chinese National Invention Prize (1996). Prof. Jianbin LUO has been engaged in the research of thin film lubrication, superlubricity, and tribology in nanomanufacturing. He was invited as a keynote or plenary speaker for more than 20 times on the international conferences.
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Two-dimensional molybdenum carbide (MXene) as an efficient nanoadditive for achieving superlubricity under ultrahigh pressure
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Yi, S., Guo, Y., Li, J. et al. Two-dimensional molybdenum carbide (MXene) as an efficient nanoadditive for achieving superlubricity under ultrahigh pressure. Friction 11, 369–382 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-022-0597-6
- molybdenum carbide (Mo2CTx) MXene
- ultrahigh pressure
- wear resistance