How the fluorographene replaced graphene as nanoadditive for improving tribological performances of GTL-8 based lubricant oil


Fluorographene, a new alternative to graphene, it not only inherits the 2-dimensional (2D) layered structure and outstanding mechanical properties, but also possesses controllable C–F bonds. It is meaningful to reveal the evolution processes of the tribological behaviors from graphene to fluorographene. In this work, fluorinated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (F–rGO) with different degree of fluorination were prepared using direct gas-fluorination and they were added into gas to liquid-8 (GTL-8) base oil as lubricant additive to improve the tribological performance. According to the results, the coefficient of friction (COF) reduced by 21%, notably, the wear rate reduced by 87% with the addition of highly fluorinated reduced graphene oxide (HF–rGO) compared with rGO. It was confirmed that more covalent C–F bonds which improved the chemical stability of HF–rGO resisted the detachment of fluorine so the HF–rGO nanosheets showed less damage, as demonstrated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the ionic liquid (IL) adsorbed on HF–rGO successfully improved the dispersibility of F–rGO in GTL-8 base oil. The investigation of tribofilm by TEM and focused ion beam (FIB) illustrated that IL displayed a synergy to participate in the tribochemical reaction and increased the thickness of tribofilm during the friction process.


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We express our great thanks to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51775540), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Science (QYZDY-SSW-JSC009), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (2017338).

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Correspondence to Wenjie Zhao.

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Xiaojing CI. She received her bachelor degree in material science and engineering in 2017 from Nanjing Technology University, Nanjing, China. After then, she is a master student in Shanghai University. Her research interests include 2D-materials and lubrication.

Wenjie ZHAO. He received his Ph.D. degree in materials science from Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (LICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China, in 2010. Then, he joined the Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies at Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, CAS, China. His current position is a professor. His research areas cover the tribology of composite materials, 2D nanomaterials preparation, interfacial physical chemistry, and protective coatings.

Jun LUO. He received his Ph.D. in condensed matter physics from the Institute of Physics, CAS, China, in 2005. Then, he was awarded an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship to visit Free University of Berlin, Germany. He went back to Institute of Physics, CAS, in 2007, and worked there for about 7 years. In October of 2013, he transferred to Shanghai University and continued his work on thermoelectric materials.

Yangmin WU. He received his bachelor and master degrees from Jiangxi University of Science and technology, China, in 2015 and 2019, respectively. Now, he is a Ph.D. student in the Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies at Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, CAS. His research interests mainly focus on synthesis and application of 2D nanomaterials.

Tianhao GE. She received her bachelor degree in material shaping and control engineering in China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, China. After then, she is a master student in the joint training Master of Science Program provided by Shanghai University and Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, CAS. Her research interest mainly focuses on the marine functional materials.

Qunji XUE. He graduated from the Chemistry Department, Shandong University in 1965, and received his master degree from LICP, CAS, China, in 1967. He has been working in LICP since 1967. He was elected as the member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 1997. From 2012, he joined the Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, CAS. He was awarded title of HeLiangHeLi Foundation Science and Technology Progress Prize (2002), Supreme Achievement Award in Tribology (2009), and Tribology Gold Medal (2011). He has presided over or participated in about 30 national major research programs, and published more than 300 papers and 3 monographs.

Zhiwen FANG. He received his bachelor degree in Tianjin University, China, in 1985, and got his M.Eng. degree from Tianjin University. Now, he is vice chairman, general manager, and technical director of Shandong Chongshan photoelectric materials Co., Ltd., part-time professor of Tianjin University and Shandong University of technology, member of fluorine-containing gas sub Technical Committee of National Gas Standardization Technical Committee, director of lithium battery branch of China chemical and physical power industry association, and has been engaged in the development and research of semiconductor and new energy materials.

Xiulei GAO. He received his bachelor degree in applied chemistry from Qilu University of Technology, China, in 2010. Now, he is the director of Department General Fluorocarbon Materials Project of Shandong Chongshan photoelectric materials Co., Ltd. His research focuses on surface treatment, smart coating, and tribology.

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Ci, X., Zhao, W., Luo, J. et al. How the fluorographene replaced graphene as nanoadditive for improving tribological performances of GTL-8 based lubricant oil. Friction (2020).

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  • reduced graphene oxide
  • fluorographene
  • lubricating oil
  • friction
  • wear
  • tribofilm