FTIR analysis and monitoring of used synthetic oils operated under similar driving conditions

Abstract

The processes of degradation of engine oils operated in passenger cars of a uniform fleet of 25 vehicles were analyzed for oxidation content using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. As part of the experiment, the changes in engine oils occurring during actual operation (under conditions which can be described as “harsh”, i.e., short distance driving, frequent starting of the engine, and extended engine idling) have been observed. An evaluation of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of an engine oil sample was presented. The infrared spectra of both fresh and used oils were recorded with the Thermo Nicolett IS5. The tests were conducted according to the Appendix A2 of ASTM 2412. For the used engine oil differentiation process, FTIR spectra were analyzed in the regions of 1,700–2,000 cm−1 and 3,600-3,700 cm−1. The FTIR spectrometry is demonstrated to be effective for the analysis and monitoring of processes of oxidation and shown to provide rapid and accurate information relating to the aging process of engine oils. The results may facilitate decision-making regarding the service life of engine oils. The achieved dependencies can make it possible to upgrade the sensor assembly consisting of an FTIR source.

Abbreviations

FTIR:

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

ASTM:

American Society for Testing and Materials

ERP:

Electron paramagnetic resonance

AW/EP:

Anti-wear and extreme pressure additives

ZnDDP:

Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates additive

PCA:

Principal component analysis

TAN:

The total acid number

TBN:

The total base number

SAE:

Society of Automotive Engineers

ACEA:

European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association

API:

The American Petroleum Institute

PPR:

Projection pursuit regression

RF:

Random forest

CE:

Oil group code-selected for the test

ME:

Oil group code-selected for the test

MS:

Oil group code-selected for the test

PE:

Oil group code-selected for the test

PS:

Oil group code-selected for the test

\(\bar x\) :

Arithmetic average

s :

Standard deviation

CV:

Coefficient of variation

V :

Value resulting from application of Student’s test

P :

Single point predictive

P d :

Lower limit of the 95% prediction interval

P g :

Upper limit of the 95% prediction interval

G :

The limit value

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Acknowledgements

The publication was funded by appropriations of the Faculty of Production Engineering University of Life Sciences in Lublin, and the Faculty of Commodity Science, Cracow University of Economics, within the framework of grants to maintain the research potential. All laboratory tests for this study were conducted at the Oil and Gas Institute in Kraków—the National Research Institute.

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Correspondence to Artur Wolak.

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Artur WOLAK. He graduated from the Faculty of Commodity Science of the Cracow University of Economics in 2009. He received his Ph.D. degree in 2014. His current position is associate professor at the Department of Quality and Safety of Industrial Products at the Cracow University of Economics. His research projects focus on improving the accuracy of assessment of physicochemical changes which occur during actual engine operation, predicting car drivers’ behaviour, predicting environmental impact and damage, and testing assuming the measurement of electrical parameters of new and used motor oils. He is the author of 30 publications in scientific journals

Grzegorz ZAJĄC. He received his M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Lublin University of Technology Poland in 1998 and Ph.D. degree in agriculture engineering from University of Life Science in Lublin, Poland, in 2006. His current position is a professor and the Head of the Department of Power Engineering and Transportation. His research areas cover the problems of using engine oils and renewable energy technologies.

Wojciech KRASODOMSKI. He graduated from the Faculty of Chemistry of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow in 1991. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1998. In 1999, he was on a fellowship at the National Institute of Researches in Inorganic Materials in Tsukuba, Japan. He has been working at ING-PIB since 2002. Specialization: chemistry and technology of additives, analysis of fuels and petroleum products, and degradation processes of lubricants and fuels during exploitation. He is the author of over 50 publications in scientific journals and 20 patents and patent applications.

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Wolak, A., Krasodomski, W. & Zając, G. FTIR analysis and monitoring of used synthetic oils operated under similar driving conditions. Friction 8, 995–1006 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-019-0344-9

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Keywords

  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • reliability
  • modelling
  • oil condition monitoring
  • oil oxidation
  • oil change interval