, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 66–86 | Cite as

Optimization of friction and wear characteristics of varied cryogenically treated hot die steel grade AISI-H13 under dry condition

  • Sanjeev Katoch
  • Rakesh Sehgal
  • Vishal Singh
Open Access
Research Article


Cryogenic treatment (CT) is a relatively new field, which has emerged during the last three decades of the twentieth century. However, its impact on material shaping and making tool life, and enhancement of their mechanical properties are quite remarkable. The selection of appropriate process parameters for CT is essential for cost reduction and optimum productivity. This study focuses on the influence of key parameters of CT cycles (i.e., soaking temperature and duration) on the friction and wear behavior of AISI H13 hot die steel under dry sliding conditions against hardened and tempered AISI D3 cold work tool steel (counter face) at varying sliding speeds and loads. Mathematical models have been developed for wear rate, the average coefficient of friction, and maximum contact temperature using the Box-Cox methodology. The developed mathematical models have been validated by comparing with the experimental results. Moreover, the optimum values of the process parameter have been employed to maximize the output and validate the same by confirmation of the experiments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the modeling and optimization of sliding friction and wear characteristics of AISI H13 under varied CT cycles.


cryogenics treatment hot die steel friction wear modeling Box-Cox method optimization 



The authors gratefully acknowledge their gratitude to the National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur to grant funds for the procurement of the hot die steel material, making available their tribological test; Institute of Auto Parts and Hand tools Technology, Ludhiana for extending facilities under the expert supervision of spectroscopic analysis, vacuum heat treatment and cryogenic treatment facility required for the study.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Materials Science and EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyHamirpur (HP)India
  2. 2.Institute for Auto Parts & Hand Tools Technology, A-9, Phase VFocal PointLudhiana (Punjab)India
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyHamirpur (HP)India

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