, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 280–302 | Cite as

Thin film lubrication in the past 20 years

Open Access
Review Article


Thin film lubrication (TFL), a lubrication regime that fills the gap between boundary lubrication (BL) and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regimes, was proposed 20 years ago. Since it was first recorded in the literature, TFL has gained substantial interest and has been advanced in the fields of theoretical and experimental research. Following the revelation of the TFL phenomenon and its central ideas, many studies have been conducted. This paper attempts to systematically review the major developments in terms of both the history and the advances in TFL. It begins with the description and definition of TFL, followed by the state-of-art studies on experimental technologies and their applications. Future prospects of relevant studies and applications are also discussed.


thin film lubrication TFL thin EHL film ordered structure interface 



The work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51527901, 51321092, and 51335005).


  1. [1]
    Petrusevich A I. Fundamental Conclusions from the Contact-Hydrodynamic Theory of Lubrication. Izv Akad Nauk SSR Otd Tekh Nauk 2: 209–233 (1951)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Dowson D, Higginson G R. A Numerical Solution to the elastohydrodynamic Problem. J Eng Sci 1: 6–15 (1959)MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Hardy W B. Collected Works. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, 1936.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Luo J B. Study on the measurement and experiments of thin film lubrication. Ph.D Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 1994Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Luo J B, Wen S Z, Huang P. Thin film lubrication, Part I: The transition between EHL and thin film lubrication. Wear 194: 107–115 (1996)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Reynolds O. On the theory of lubrication and its application to Mr. Beauchamp Tower’s experiments, including an experimental determination of the viscosity of olive oil. Philos Trans R Soc London 177: 157–234 (1886)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Dowson D. Elasto-hydrodynamic Lubrication theory for anti-friction bearings. Erdol Und Kohle Erdgas Petrochemie 20(12): 880-& (1967)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Cheng H S. A numerical solution of the elastohydrodynamic film thickness in an elliptical contact. J Lubr Technol Trans ASME 92: 155–161 (1970)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Hamrock B J, Dowson D. Isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of point contact: Part I—Theoretical formulation. ASME J Lubr Technol 98: 375–383 (1976)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Zhu D, Wen S Z. A full numerical solution for the thermoelastohydrodynamic problem in elliptical contact. ASME J Tribol 106: 246–254 (1984)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Yang P R, Wen S Z. A generalized Reynolds equation based on non-Newtonian thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication. ASME Trans J Tribol 112: 631–639 (1990)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Hardy W B. Doubleday I. Boundary lubrication—the paraffin series. Proc R Soc Lond A 100: 550–563 (1921)Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Bowden F P, Tabor D. The Friction and Lubrication of Solid. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press, 1954: 233–250.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Adamson A W. The physical chemistry of Surfaces. In Interscience, Third Ed. New York, USA, 1976: 447–448.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Kingsbury E P. Some aspects of the thermal of a boundary lubrication. J Appl Phys 29: 888–891 (1958)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Cammera A. A theory of boundary lubrication. ASLE Trans 2: 195–198 (1959)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Homola A M, Israelachvili J N. Fundamental studies in tribology: the transition from interfacial friction of undamaged molecularly smooth surfaces to “normal” friction with wear. In Proceedings of The 5th International Congress on Tribology, Finland, 1989: 28–49.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Johnston G J, Wayte R, Spikes H A. The measurement and study of very thin lubricant films in concentrate contact. STLE Tribol Trans 34: 187–194 (1991)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Luo J B, Wen S Z. Study on the mechanism and characteristics of thin film lubrication at nanometer scale. Science in China (Series A) 35: 1312–1322 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Luo J B, Wen S Z, Li K Y. The effect of substrate energy on the film thickness at nanometer scale. Lubr Sci 10: 23–29 (1998)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Luo J B, Huang P, Wen S Z. Characteristics of liquid lubricant films at the nano-scale. ASME Trans. ASME Trans J Tribol 121: 872–878 (1999)Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Luo J B, Qian L M, Lui S, Wen S Z. The failure of liquid film at nano-scale. STLE Tribol Trans 42: 912–916 (1999)Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Tichy J A. Modeling of thin film lubrication. Tribol Trans 38(1): 108–118 (1995)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Tichy J A. A surface layer model for thin film lubrication. Tribol Trans 38(3): 577–582 (1995)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Hartl M, Krupka I, Poliscuk R, Liska M, Molimard J, Querry M, Vergne P. Thin film colorimetric interferometry. Tribol Trans 44(2): 270–276 (2001)Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Matsuoka H, Kato T. An ultrathin liquid film lubrication theory—Calculation method of solvation pressure and its application to the EHL problem. J Tribol 119(1): 217–226 (1997)Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Guangteng G, Spikes H A. Boundary film formation by lubricant base fluids. Tribol Trans 39(2): 448–454 (1996)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Luo J B, Yian C N. Fuzzy view point in lubricating theory. Lubr Eng 4: 1–4 (1989)Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Gupta A, Sharma M M. Stability of thin aqueous films on solid surfaces. J Colloid Interf Sci 149: 392–424 (1991)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Guangteng G, Spikes H A. The control of friction by molecular fractionation of base fluid mixtures at metal surfaces. Tribol Trans 40(3): 461–469 (1997)Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Harlt M, Krupka I, Liska M. Experimental study of boundary layers formation by thin film colorimetric interferometry. Science in China Series A-Mathematic Physics Astronomy 44: 412–417 (2001)Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Thompson P A, Grest G S, Robbins M O. Phase transitions and universal dynamics in confined films. Phys Rev Lett 68(23): 3448–3451 (1992)Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Hu Y Z, Wang H, Guo Y, Zheng L Q. Simulation of solidliquid transition in thin film lubrication. Lubrication and Sealing. 6: 16–20 (1995)Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Hu YZ, Wang H, Guo Y, Zheng L Q. Simulation of lubricant rheology in thin film lubrication, Part I: simulation of Poiseuille flow. Wear 196: 243–248 (1996)Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Hu Y Z, Wang H, Guo Y, Shen Z J, Zheng L Q. Simulation of lubricant rheology in thin film lubrication, Part II: simulation of Couette flow. Wear 196: 249 (1996)Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Bhushan B. Introduction to Tribology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Wen S Z. Principle of Tribology. Beijing(China): Tsinghua University Press, 1991Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Luo J, Lu X, Wen S. Developments and unsolved problems in nano-lubrication. Progress in Natural Science 11(3): 173–183 (2001)Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Savio D, Fillot N, Vergne P. A molecular dynamics study of the transition from ultra-thin film lubrication toward local film breakdown. Tribol Lett 50: 207–220 (2013)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Hu Y Z, Granick S. Microscopic study of thin film lubrication and its contributions to macroscopic tribology. Tribol Lett 5: 81–88 (1998)Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Hsu S, Ying C, Zhao F. The nature of friction: A critical assessment. Friction 2(1): 1–26 (2014)Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Dietzel D, Schwarz U D, Schirmeisen A. Nanotribological studies using nanoparticle manipulation: Principles and application to structural lubricity. Friction 2(2): 114–139 (2014)Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Israelachvili J N, Mc Guiggan P M, Homola A M Dynamic properties of molecularly thin liquid films. Science 240(4849): 189–191 (1988)Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Gee M L, Mc Guiggan P M, Israelachvili J N, Homola A M. Liquid to solidlike transitions of molecularly thin films under shear. J Chem Phys 93(3): 1895–1906 (1990)Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Tabor D F R S, Winterton R H S. The direct measurement of normal and retarded van der Waals forces. Proc R Soc London A: Math Phys Eng Sci 312(1511): 435–450 (1969)Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Bowden F P, Tabor D. Friction lubrication and wear- A survey of work during last decade. British Journal of Applied Physics 17(12): 1521–+ (1966)Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Israelachvili J N. The calculation of van der Waals dispersion forces between macroscopic bodies. Proc R Soc London A: Math Phys Eng Sci 331(1584): 39–55 (1972)Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Israelachvili J N, Tabor D. Measurement of van der Waals dispersion forces in the range 1.4 to 130 nm. Nature 236(68): 106–106 (1972)Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Klein J, Kumacheva E. Confinement-induced phase-transitions in simple liquids. Science 269(5225): 816–819 (1995)Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Klein J, Kumacheva E. Simple liquids confined to molecularly thin layers. I. Confinement-induced liquid-to-solid phase transitions. J Chem Phys 108(16): 6996–7009 (1998)Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Granick S. Motions and relaxations of confined liquids. Science 253(5026): 1374–1379 (1991)Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Ma L, Luo J. Advances in thin film lubrication (TFL): From discovery to the aroused further researches. Science China Technological Sciences 58(10): 1609–1616 (2015)Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Cameron A, Gohar R. Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact. Proc R Soc A 291: 520–535 (1966)Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Foord C A, Hammann W C, Cameron A. Evaluation of lubricants using optical elastohydrodynamics. ASLE Trans 11: 31–43 (1968)Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Wedeven L D, Foord C A, Westlake, F J, Cameron, A. Optical elastohydrodynamics. Proc Inst Mech Eng 184(1): 487–505 (1969–1970)Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Guangteng G, Spikes H A. Properties of ultrathin lubricating films using wedged spacer layer optical interferometry. In Interface Dynamics. In Proceedings of the 14th Leeds–Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds, 1988: 275–279.Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Spikes H A. Thin films in elastohydrodynamic lubrication: the contribution of experiment. Proc Inst Mech Eng J: J Eng Tribol 213(15): 335–352 (1999)Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Cann P M, Spikes H A, Hutchinson J. The development of a spacer layer imaging method (SLIM) for mapping elastohydrodynamic contacts. STLE Tribol Trans 39: 915–921 (1996)Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Spikes H A, Cann P M. The development and application of the spacer layer imaging method for measuring lubricant film thickness. Proc Inst Mech Eng J: J Eng Tribol 215(J3): 261–277 (2001)Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Glovnea R P, Forrest A K, Olver A V, Spikes H A. Measurement of sub-nanometer lubricant films using ultrathin film interferometry. Tribol Lett 15: 217–230 (2003)Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Ma L, Zhang C. Discussion on the technique of relative optical interference intensity for the measurement of lubricant film thickness. Tribol Lett 36: 239–245 (2009)Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Luo J B, Shen M W, Shi B. Thin film lubrication and lubrication map. Chinese J Mechanical Engineering (in Chinese) 36(7): 15–21 (2000)Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Guo F, Wong P L. A multiple-beam intensity-based approach for thin lubricant film measurement in non-conformal contacts. Proc Inst Mech Eng J Eng Tribol 216: 281–291 (2002)Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Guo F, Wong P L. A wide range measuring system for thin lubricating film: from nano to micro thickness. Tribol Lett 17: 521–531 (2004)Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Hartl M, Krupka I, Liska M. Differential colorimetry: Tool for evaluation of chromatic interference patterns. Optical Engineering 36: 2384–2391 (1997)Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Hartl M, Krupka I, Poliscuk R, Liska M. An automatic system for real-time evaluation of EHD film thickness and shape based on the colorimetric inteferometry. Tribol Trans 42: 303–309 (1999)Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Cann P M. In-contact molecular spectroscopy of liquid lubricant films. MRS Bulletin 33(12): 1151–1158 (2008)Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Cann P M, Spikes H A. In-contact IR spectroscopy of hydrocarbon lubricants. Tribol Lett 19(4): 289–297 (2005)Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Bae S C, Lin Z, Granick S. Conjugated polymers confined and sheared: photoluminescence and absorption dichroism in a surface forces apparatus. Macromolecules 38: 9275–9279 (2005)Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Golan Y, Martin-Herranz A, Li Y, Safinya C R, Israelachvili J. Direct observation of shear-induced orientational phase coexistence in a lyotropic system using a modified X-ray surface forces apparatus. Phys Rev Lett 86(7): 1263–1266 (2001)Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Bae S C, Wong J, Kim M, Jiang S, Hong L, Granick S. Using light to study boundary lubrication: spectroscopic study of confined fluids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 366(1869): 1443–1454 (2008)Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Bae S C, Lee H, Lin Z, Granick S. Chemical imaging in a surface forces apparatus: confocal Raman spectroscopy of confined poly (dimethylsiloxane). Langmuir 21(13): 5685–5688 (2005)Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Jiang S, Bae S C, Granick S. PDMS melts on mica studied by confocal Raman scattering. Langmuir 24(4): 1489–1494 (2008)Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Zhang S H, Liu Y H, Luo J B. In situ observation of the molecular ordering in the lubricating point contact area. J Appl Phys 116(1): 309–317 (2014)Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Zhang H Y, Zhang S H, Luo J B, Liu Y H, Qian S H, Liang, F H, Huang, Y L. Investigation of protein adsorption mechanism and biotribological properties at simulated stemcement interface. J Tribol-T ASME 135(3): 032301 (2013)Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Chen C, Even M A, Chen Z. Detecting molecular-level chemical structure and group orientation of amphiphilic PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers at solution/air and solid/solution interfaces by SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Macromolecules 36(12): 4478–4484 (2003)Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Du Q, Freysz E, Shen Y R. Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity. Science 264(5160): 826–828 (1994)Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Gao M, Ma L R, Gao Y, Guo D, Wang D S, Luo J B. Effect of metal ions on the morphology of silver nanocrystals. RSC Adv 4(41): 21571–21574 (2014)Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Gao M. Online research on molecular arrangement rule and micro mechanism of lubricant films. Ph.D Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 1994.Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    Hamrock B J, Dowson D. Isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of point contacts: Part III—Fully flooded results. J Lubr Technol 99(2): 264–275 (1977)Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Muraki M, Nakamura K. Film-forming properties and traction of non-functionalized polyalkylmethacrylate solutions under transition from elastohydrodynamic lubrication to thin-film lubrication. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J-J Eng Tribol 224(J1): 55–63 (2010)Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Liang H, Guo D, Ma L R, Luo J B. The film forming behavior at high speeds under oil-air lubrication. Tribol Int 91: 6–13 (2015)Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Liang H, Guo D, Ma L R, Luo J B. Experimental investigation of centrifugal effects on lubricant replenishment in the starved regime at high speeds. Tribol Lett 59(1): 1–9 (2015)Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Zhu D. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in extended parameter ranges—Part 1: Speed effect. Tribol Trans 45: 540–548 (2002)Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Zhu D. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in extended parameter ranges—Part 2: Load effect. Tribol Trans 45: 549–555 (2002)Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Krupka I, Hartl M, Liška M. Thin lubricating films behaviour at very high contact pressure. Tribol Int 39(12): 1726–1731 (2006)Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Xiao H, Guo D, Liu S H, Lu X C, Luo J B. Experimental investigation of lubrication properties at high contact pressure. Tribol Lett 40(1): 85–97 (2010)Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Xiao H P. Research of lubrication properties in microgap under high contact pressure. Master Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 2011.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Xiao H P, Guo D, Liu S H, Pan G, Lu, X C. Film thickness of ionic liquids under high contact pressures as a function of alkyl chain length. Tribol Lett 41(2): 471–477 (2011)Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Zhang S H. Experimental study on molecular arrangement of nanoscale lubricant films. Ph.D. Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 2014Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Luo J B, Shen M W, Wen S Z. Tribological properties of nanoliquid film under an external electric field. J Appl Phys 96(11): 6733–6738 (2004)Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Xie G X, Luo J B, Guo D, Nanoconfined ionic liquids under electric fields. Appl Phys Lett 96(4): 043112 (2010)Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    Xie G X, Luo J B, Liu S H, Guo D, Zhang C H. Nanoconfined liquid aliphatic compounds under external electric fields: Roles of headgroup and alkyl chain length. Soft Matter 7(9): 4453–4460 (2011)Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Xie G X, Luo J B, Liu S H, Guo D, Zhang C. “Freezing” of nanoconfined fluids under an electric field. Langmuir 26(3): 1445–1448 (2010)Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    Luo J B, He Y, Zhong M, Jin Z. Gas micro-bubble phenomenon in nanoscale liquid film under external electric field. Appl Phys Lett 89(1): 013104 (2006)Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Choi E M. Yoon Y H. Lee S. Kang H. Freezing transition of interfacial water at room temperature under electric fields. Phys Rev Lett 95(8): 085701 (2005)Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    Zangi R. Mark A E. Electrofreezing of confined water. J Chem Phys 120(15): 7123–7130 (2004)Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Capozza R, Vanossi A, Benassi A, Tosatti E. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid un(der confinement and charging. J Chem Phys 142(6): 064707/1-10 (2015)Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    Pinilla C, Del Pópolo M G, Kohanoff J, Lynden-Bell R M. Polarization relaxation in an ionic liquid confined between electrified walls. J Phys Chem B 111(18): 4877–4884 (2007)Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    Verma R, Sharma A, Kargupta K, Bhaumik J. Electric field induced instability and pattern formation in thin liquid films. Langmuir 21(8): 3710–3721 (2005)Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    Bratko D Daub C D, Leung K, Luzar A. Effect of field direction on electrowetting in a nanopore. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129(9): 2504–2510 (2007)Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Zeng H, Tian Y, Anderson T H, Tirrell M, Israelachvili J N. New SFA techniques for studying surface forces and thin film patterns induced by electric fields. Langmuir 24(4): 1173–1182 (2008)Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Bratko D, Daub C D, Luzar A. Field-exposed water in a nanopore: liquid or vapour? Phys Chem Chem Phys 10(45): 6807–6813 (2008)Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Bou-Malham I, Bureau L. Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Effect of surface charges on flow and molecular layering. Soft Matter 6(17): 4062–4065 (2010)Google Scholar
  105. [105]
    Srivastava S, Reddy P D S, Wang C, Bandyopadhyay D, Sharma A. Electric field induced microstructures in thin films on physicochemically heterogeneous and patterned substrates. J Chem Phys 132(17): 174703 (2010)Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    Xie G, Luo J, Liu S, Zhang C, Lu X. Micro-bubble phenomenon in nanoscale water-based lubricating film induced by external electric field. Tribol Lett 29(3): 169–176 (2008)Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    Xie G X, Luo J B, Liu S H, Guo D, Li G, Zhang C H. Effect of liquid properties on the growth and motion characteristics of micro-bubbles induced by electric fields in confined liquid films. J Phys D: Appl Phys 42(11): 115502 (2009)Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Xie G, Luo J, Liu S, Guo D, Zhang C. Bubble generation in a nanoconfined liquid film between dielectric-coated electrodes under alternating current electric fields. Appl Phys Lett 96(22): 223104 (2010)Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Ratoi M, Spikes H A. Lubricating properties of aqueous surfactant solutions. Tribol Trans 42(3): 479–486 (1999)Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    Boschkova K, Kronberg B, Rutland M, Imae T. Study of thin surfactant films under shear using the tribological surface force apparatus. Tribol Int 34(12):815–822 (2001)Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Boschkova K, Feiler A, Kronberg B, Stalgren J J R. Adsorption and frictional properties of Gemini surfactants at solid surfaces. Langmuir 18: 7930–7935 (2002)Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Boschkova K, Kronberg B, Stalgren J J R, Persson K, Salagean M R. Lubrication in aqueous solutions using cationic surfactants—A study of static and dynamic forces. Langmuir 18:1680–1687 (2002)Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    Liu S H. Studies on lubricating mechanisms and tribological properties of aqueous solutions. Ph.D. Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 2008.Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Lee S, Müller M, Ratoi-Salagean M, Vörös J, Pasche S, De Paul S M, Spikes H A, Textor M, Spencer N D. Boundary lubrication of oxide surfaces by poly (L-lysine)-g-poly (ethylene glycol)(PLL-g-PEG) in aqueous media. Tribol Lett 15(3): 231–239 (2003)Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    Plaza S, Margielewskia L, Celichowskia G, Wesolowskia R W, Staneckaa R. Tribological performance of some polyoxyethylene dithiophosphate derivatives water solutions. Wear 249:1077–1089 (2001)Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Ma L R. Research on the lubricating characteristics and mechanisms of aqueous emulsions. Ph.D. Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 2010.Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    Ma L R, Zhang C H, Luo J B. Investigation of the film formation mechanism of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Soft Matter 7: 4207–4213 (2011)Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    Ma L R, Zhang C H, Liu S H. Progress in experimental study of aqueous lubrication. Chinese Science Bulletin 57(17): 2062–2069 (2012)Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    Ma L, Luo J, Zhang C, Liu S, Lu X, Guo D, Ma J B, Zhu T. Film forming characteristics of oil-in-water emulsion with super-low oil concentration. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 340(1): 70–76 (2009)Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    Ma L, Xu X, Zhang C, Guo D, Luo J. Reemulsification effect on the film formation of O/W emulsion. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 417: 238–243 (2014)Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    Ma L, Xu X, Zhang C, Luo J. Direct observation of the formation and destruction of the inverted continuous oil phase in the micro-outlet region achieved by the confined diluted O/W emulsion stream. Soft Matter 10(40): 7946–7951 (2014)Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    Ma L, Zhang C, Luo J. Direct observation on the behaviour of emulsion droplets and formation of oil pool under point contact. Appl Phys Lett 101(24): 241603 (2012)Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    Hirano M, Shinjo K. Atomistic locking and friction. Phys Rev B 41(17): 11837–11851 (1990)Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    Shinjo K, Hirano M. Dynamics of friction: superlubric state. Surf Sci 283(1): 473–478 (1993)Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    Li J J, Luo J B. Advancements in superlubricity. Science China Technological Sciences 56(12): 2877–2887 (2013)Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    Tomizawa H, Fischer T E. Friction and wear of siliconnitride and silicon-carbide in water: Hydrodynamic lubrication at low sliding speed obtained by tribochemical wear. ASLE Trans 30(1): 41–46 (1987)Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    Zhou F, Adachi K, Kato K. Sliding friction and wear property of a-C and a-CNx coatings against SiC balls in water. Thin Solid Films 514(1–2): 231–239 (2006)Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    Xu J G, Kato K. Formation of tribochemical layer of ceramics sliding in water and its role for low friction. Wear 245(1–2): 61–75 (2000)Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    Xu J G, Kato K, Hirayama T. The transition of wear mode during the running-in process of silicon nitride sliding in water. Wear 205(1–2): 55–63 (1997)Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    Wang XL, Kato K, Adachi K, Aizawa K. Loads carrying capacity map for the surface texture design of SiC thrust bearing sliding in water. Tribol Int 36(3): 189–197 (2003)Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    Klein J, Raviv U, Perkin S, Kampf N, Chai L, Giasson S. Fluidity of water and of hydrated ions confined between solid surfaces to molecularly thin films. J Phys-Condes Matter 16(45): 5437–5448 (2004)Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    Klein J, Kumacheva E, Mahalu D, Perahia D, Fetters L J. Reduction of frictional forces between solid-surfaces bearing polymer brushes. Nature 370(6491): 634–636 (1994)Google Scholar
  133. [133]
    Klein J. Hydration lubrication. Friction 1(1): 1–23 (2013)Google Scholar
  134. [134]
    Kenausis G L, Voros J, Elbert D L, Huang N, Hofer R, Ruiz-Taylor L, Textor M, Hubbell J A, Spencer N D. Poly(L-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) layers on metal oxide surfaces: Attachment mechanism and effects of polymer architecture on resistance to protein adsorption. J Phys Chem B 104(14): 3298–3309 (2000)Google Scholar
  135. [135]
    Li J J, Zhang C H, Luo J B. Superlubricity behavior with phosphoric acid-water network induced by rubbing. Langmuir 27(15): 9413–9417 (2011)Google Scholar
  136. [136]
    Ma Z Z, Zhang C H, Luo J B, Lu X C, Wen S Z. Superlubricity of a mixed aqueous solution. Chin Phys Lett 28: 056201 (2011)Google Scholar
  137. [137]
    Li J J, Zhang C H, Sun L, Lu X, Luo J. Tribochemistry and superlubricity induced by hydrogen ions. Langmuir 28(45): 15816–15823 (2012)Google Scholar
  138. [138]
    Li J J, Zhang C H, Ma L R, Liu Y, Luo J. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of acids and glycerol. Langmuir 29(1): 271–275 (2013)Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    Li J J, Liu Y H, Luo J B, Liu P, Zhang C. Excellent lubricating behavior of Brasenia Schreberi Mucilage. Langmuir 28(20): 7797–7802 (2012)Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    Gao M, Ma L, Luo J. Effect of alkyl chain length on the orientational behavior of liquid crystals nano-film. Tribol Lett 62(2): 1–7 (2016)Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    Gao M, Online Research on Molecular Arrangment Rule and Micro Mechanism of Lubricant Films, Ph.D. Thesis, Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 2016.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2016

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of TribologyTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations