Associations between age and 50 trace element contents and relationships in intact thyroid of males
- 90 Downloads
It is unclear why a prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is higher in the elderly as compared to the younger population. An excess or deficiency of trace element contents in thyroid may play important role in goitre- and carcinogenesis of gland.
To examine the variation with age of the mass fraction of 50 trace elements in intact (normal) male thyroid.
Samples of thyroid parenchyma obtained from 72 healthy males (mean age 37.8 years, range 2–80 years) was investigated. Measurements were performed using a combination of non-destructive and destructive methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Tissue samples were divided into two portions. One was used for morphological study while the other was intended for trace element analysis.
There is a statistically significant increase in Cd and Se mass fraction, as well as a decrease in Al, Be, Dy, Ga, Gd, Li, Mn, U, and Y mass fraction in the normal thyroid of male during a lifespan. Moreover, a disturbance of intra-thyroidal chemical element relationships (correlations) with increasing age was found.
Our findings suggest that, at least, a goitrogenic and carcinogenic effect of Cd overload and Mn deficiency in the thyroid of old males may be assumed. Many trace elements in human thyroid behave themselves as antagonists or synergists. Therefore, an age-related disturbance in correlations between Mn and other trace element mass fractions in thyroid parenchyma may also contribute to harmful effects on the gland.
Age-related changes in intra-thyroidal trace element contents and disturbances in trace element relationships are involved in goitre- and carcinogenesis.
KeywordsThyroid Chemical elements Age-related changes Neutron activation analysis Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
We are grateful to Dr. Yu. Choporov, Head of the Forensic Medicine Department of City Hospital, Obninsk, for supplying thyroid samples. We are also grateful to Dr. Karandaschev V., Dr. Nosenko S., and Moskvina I., Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Russia, for their help in ICP-MS analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest aside from grant funding stated above.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
Statement of human and animal rights.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- 10.Zaichick V, Zaichick S (1999) Role of zinc in prostate cancerogenesis. In: Anke M et al (eds) Mengen und Spurenelemente, 19 Arbeitstagung. Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Jena, pp 104–115Google Scholar
- 19.Zaichick V (1998) Iodine excess and thyroid cancer. J Trace Elem Exp Med 11:508–509Google Scholar
- 20.Zaichick V (1998) In vivo and in vitro application of energy-dispersive XRF in clinical investigations: experience and the future. J Trace Elem Exp Med 11:509–510Google Scholar
- 21.Zaichick V, Iljina T (1998) Dietary iodine supplementation effect on the rat thyroid 131I blastomogenic action. In: Anke M et al (eds) Die Bedentung der Mengen- und Spurenelemente. 18. Arbeitstangung. Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, pp 294–306Google Scholar
- 22.Zaichick V, Zaichick S (1999) Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence of iodine in thyroid puncture biopsy specimens. J Trace Microprobe Tech 17:219–232Google Scholar
- 23.Zaichick V (1999) Human intrathyroidal iodine in health and non-thyroidal disease. In: Abdulla M et al (eds) New aspects of trace element research. Smith-Gordon and Nishimura, London and Tokyo, pp 114–119Google Scholar
- 26.Vlasova ZA (1969) Dynamics of trace element contents in thyroid gland in connection with age and atherosclerosis, vol 80. In: Proceedings of the Leningrad institute of doctor advanced training, pp 135–144Google Scholar
- 27.Kortev AI, Dontsov GI, Lyascheva AP (1972) Bio-elements in human pathology. Middle-Ural Publishing-House, SverdlovskGoogle Scholar
- 28.Kamenev VF (1963) Trace element contents in the thyroid gland of adult person. In: Trace elements in agriculture and medicine. Ulan-Ude, Russia, pp 12–16Google Scholar
- 29.Kosta L, Zelenko V, Ravnik V et al (1974) Trace elements in human thyroid with special reference to the observed accumulation of mercury following long-term exposure. In: Comparative studies of food and environmental contamination. IAEA, Vienna, pp 541–550Google Scholar
- 32.Zakutinskiy DI, Parfeynov UyD, Selivanova LN (1962) Handbook on the toxicology of radioisotopes. Meditcinskaya Literatura, MoscowGoogle Scholar
- 34.Remiz AM (1962) Endemic goiter and trace elements in Kabardino-Balkaria АSSR. In: In: All-Union conference on endocrinology. Medgiz, Moscow, pp 330–331Google Scholar
- 37.Salimi J, Moosavi K, Vatankhah S, Yaghoobi A (2004) Investigation of heavy trace elements in neoplastic and non-neoplastic human thyroid tissue: a study by proton-induced X-ray emissions. Iran J Radiat Res 1:211–216Google Scholar
- 39.Ataulchanov IA (1969) Age-related changes of manganese, cobalt, coper, zinc, and iron contents in the endocrine glands of females. Probl Endocrinol 15:98–102Google Scholar
- 40.Belozerov ES (1965) Content of Ga trace element in some human tissues and organs, including thyroid gland. Zdravoohr Turkm 4:15–16Google Scholar
- 42.Reytblat MA, Kropacheyv AM (1967) Some trace elements in the normal thyroid of Perm Prikam’e inhabitants. Proc Perm Med Inst 78:157–164Google Scholar
- 43.Boulyga SF, Becker JS, Malenchenko AF et al (2000) Application of ICP-MS for multielement analysis in small sample amounts of pathological thyroid tissue. MCA 134:215–222Google Scholar
- 44.Fuzailov YuM (1981) Reaction of human and animal thyroids in the conditions of antimony sub-region of the Fergana valley. IX All-union conference on trace elements in biology, Kishinev, pp 58–62Google Scholar
- 48.Wang J, Zhu H, Ouyang L (2004) Determination of trace Cs, Th and U in ten kinds of human autopsy tissues by ICP-MS. Spectrosc Spect Anal 24:1117–1120Google Scholar
- 49.Zaichick V (1997) Sampling, sample storage and preparation of biomaterials for INAA in clinical medicine, occupational and environmental health. In: Harmonization of health-related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques. IAEA, Vienna, pp 123–133Google Scholar
- 50.Zaichick V (2004) Losses of chemical elements in biological samples under the dry ashing process. Mikroelem Med 5:17–22Google Scholar
- 52.Zaichick V, Zaichick S (1996) Instrumental effect on the contamination of biomedical samples in the course of sampling. Zh Anal Khim 51:1200–1205Google Scholar
- 53.Zaichick V, Tsislyak YuV (1978) A simple device for bio-sample lyophilic drying. Lab Delo 2:109–110Google Scholar
- 54.Zaichick V, Tsislyak YuV (1981) A modified adsorptive and cryogenic lyophilizer for biosample concentrations. Lab Delo 2:100–101Google Scholar
- 64.Korelo AM, Zaichick V (1993) Software to optimize the multielement INAA of medical and environmental samples. In: Activation analysis in environment protection. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, pp 326–332Google Scholar
- 67.Ivanoff CS, Ivanoff AE, Hottel TL (2012) Gallium poisoning: a rare case report. FCT 50:212–215Google Scholar
- 74.Zaichick S, Zaichick V, Karandashev V et al (2011) The effect of age on the lithium content in prostate of healthy men. In: Interaction of neutrons with nuclei. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, pp 337–341Google Scholar
- 78.Watts DL (1989) The nutritional relationships of the thyroid. Orthomol Med 4:165–169Google Scholar