Estimation of weight status and weight-loss efforts in Korean adults with non-obesity considering metabolic syndrome
- 47 Downloads
To examine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) is related to estimation of weight status and weight-loss efforts in Korean adults with non-obesity.
In 4345 men and 6387 women in non-obese Koreans (age 49.2 ± 16.7 years, BMI < 25 kg/m2) participating in the 2011–2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the presence/absence of MetS using the harmonized criteria, and weight perception and weight-loss efforts using questionnaires were assessed. Estimation of weight status was determined as underestimation, correct estimation, and overestimation based on differences between perceived weight categories and BMI-based categories.
15.7% in men and 12.6% in women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 had the MetS. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, treatment of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, and BMI-based categories, correct estimation and overestimation of weight status in men [odds ratio (95% CI), 1.58 (1.29–1.92); 2.82 (1.48–5.38)], and women [1.53 (1.26–1.86); 1.59 (1.09–2.31)] were positively associated with the presence of MetS compared to those with underestimation of weight status. After adjusting for weight estimation, sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, weight-loss efforts were positively associated with the presence of MetS [1.66 (1.33–2.08) in men, 1.31 (1.07–1.61) in women] in all subjects, and number of MetS components [1.28 (1.02–1.62) per 1 more component] in those with MetS.
In non-obese individuals, correct estimation and overestimation of weight status may be more likely to identify individuals with MetS and concurrent MetS may increase weight-loss efforts regardless of weight estimation.
Level of evidence
Level III, evidence obtained from a case–control observational study.
KeywordsWeight estimation Weight loss Metabolic syndrome Metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW) Non-obesity
This work was supported by the National Resarch Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017S1A5B8066096).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This work was supported by the National Rsearch Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017S1A5B8066096).
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 5.Lee K (2009) Metabolically obese but normal weight (MONW) and metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotypes in Koreans: characteristics and health behaviors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2:280–284Google Scholar
- 6.Choi J, Se-Young O, Lee D, Tak S, Hong M, Park SM et al (2005) Characteristics of diet patterns in metabolically obese, normal weight adults (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2012;7:567–574Google Scholar
- 10.Guglielmi V, Sbraccia P (2017) Obesity phenotypes: depot-differences in adipose tissue and their clinical implications. Eat Weight DisordGoogle Scholar
- 12.Baur DM, Christophi CA, Tsismenakis AJ, Jahnke SA, Kales SN (2012) Weight-perception in male career firefighters and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. BMC Public Health 480-2458-12-480Google Scholar
- 13.Duncan DT, Wolin KY, Scharoun-Lee M, Ding EL, Warner ET, Bennett GG (2011) Does perception equal reality? Weight misperception in relation to weight-related attitudes and behaviors among overweight and obese US adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 20-5868-8-20Google Scholar
- 15.Peltzer K, Pengpid S (2015) Trying to lose weight among non-overweight university students from 22 low, middle and emerging economy countries. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1:177–183Google Scholar
- 17.Montani JP, Schutz Y, Dulloo AG. Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?. Obes Rev., 2015:7–18Google Scholar
- 18.Guidelines for heath survey (2013) The Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1), 2013, Korea Centers for Disease Control and PreventionGoogle Scholar
- 19.Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA et al (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 16:1640–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.The International Association for the Study of Obesity and the International Obesity Task Force (2000) The Asia–Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. IASO and IOTF, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- 24.Wang B, Zhuang R, Luo X, Yin L, Pang C, Feng T et al (2015) Prevalence of metabolically healthy obese and metabolically obese but normal weight in adults worldwide: a meta-analysis. Horm Metab Res 11:839–845Google Scholar