Psychometric evaluation of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale in a Mexican male sample

  • María del Consuelo Escoto Ponce de LeónEmail author
  • Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
  • Esteban Jaime Camacho Ruiz
  • Georgina Alvarez-Rayón
  • Karina Franco Paredes
  • Gabriela Rodríguez Hernández
Original Article



The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS) shows acceptable psychometric properties in Mexican bodybuilders.


A total of 258 Mexican male bodybuilders were recruited. Two self-report questionnaires, including the MASS and drive for muscularity scale (DMS), were administered. Six models of the latent structure of the MASS were evaluated, using confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood, considering robust Satorra–Bentler correction to estimate the fit of the models to the data.


Similar to the original MASS, the series of CFA confirmed that the Mexican version was well represented with the 17-item five-factor structure, which showed a good model fit [Satorra–Bentler Chi-square (109, n = 258) = 189.18, p < 0.0001; NNFI = 0.91; CFI = 0.93; IFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.05 (0.04, 0.07)]. Internal consistency was estimated with McDonald’s omega, which was acceptable for the MASS (0.88), and their subscales (0.80 to 0.89), except for muscle checking scale (0.77). Test–retest reliability analysis showed stability of the MASS total as well as of the subscale scores over a 2-week period (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.75–0.91). Construct validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between MASS and DMS results (r = 0.75; p = 0.0001). These results were similar to those of previous studies, which demonstrate the scale’s usefulness.


Our results support the suitability of the MASS and its subscales to measure muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Mexican male bodybuilders.


Body image Confirmatory factor analysis Male Muscle dysmorphia 



The study was supported by the Grants UAEM (3388/2013ESP and 1002/2012/RCA) to Consuelo Escoto and UNAM-PAPIIT (IN-306615) to Georgina Alvarez-Rayón.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • María del Consuelo Escoto Ponce de León
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
    • 1
  • Esteban Jaime Camacho Ruiz
    • 2
  • Georgina Alvarez-Rayón
    • 3
  • Karina Franco Paredes
    • 4
  • Gabriela Rodríguez Hernández
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCentro Universitario UAEM Ecatepec, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoEcatepecMexico
  2. 2.Department of Health EducationUnidad Académica Profesional Nezahualcóyotl, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoNezahualcóyotlMexico
  3. 3.Eating Disorders Laboratory, Facultad de Estudios Superiores IztacalaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoTlalnepantlaMexico
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyCentro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de GuadalajaraCiudad GuzmánMexico

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