Central or overall obesity: which one is a better predictor of depressive symptoms in children, adolescents, and youths?

  • Samad Esmaeilzadeh
  • Reza Farzizadeh
  • Hassan-Ali Kalantari
  • Asghar Mahmoudi
  • Omid Yousefi Bilehsavar
  • Ali Mehranpour
Original Article
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

Background and purpose

Despite the strong effect of central obesity on individuals’ physical health outcomes, there is little evidence underlying the relationship between central obesity and mental disorders such as depression, especially in children, adolescents, and youths of the developing countries. This study explores the relationship between depressive symptoms (DS) with central and overall obesity in a sample of Iranian children, adolescents, and youths.

Methods

One thousand and fifty-two male participants ranging from 7 to 24 years old underwent standard anthropometry, and filled the DS questionnaire.

Results

Having controlled the potential confounders (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, pubertal maturation status, and physical activity), we found waist circumference (WC) significantly related to DS in the children (standardized β = 0.14; P < 0.05) and adolescents (standardized β = 0.13; P < 0.05). No significant relationship was observed between WC and DS in the youths (standardized β = 0.09; P = 0.22). In addition, no significant relationship was observed between DS and the percentage of fat in the sampled children (standardized β = 0.085; P = 0.13), adolescents (standardized β = 0.10; P = 0.10), and youths (standardized β = −0.02; P = 0.75).

Conclusion

Central obesity (but not overall obesity) was a significant predictor of DS in the children and adolescents (7–18 years). However, DS in the youths (19–24 years) were not significantly associated with both the central and overall body obesity indices.

Keywords

Adolescents Children Depressive symptoms Fat percentage Physical activity Waist circumference 

Abbreviations

BDI-II

Beck Depression Inventory-II

BMI

Body mass index

CDI

Children’s Depression Inventory

DS

Depressive symptoms

PA

Physical activity

PAQ-C

PA Questionnaire-Children

PAQ-A

PA Questionnaire-Adolescents

PMS

Pubertal maturation status

SES

Socioeconomic status

WC

Waist circumference

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Funding

No funding was received for performing the present study.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Human Ethics Committee of Ardabil Department of Education and University of Mohaghegh Ardabili and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samad Esmaeilzadeh
    • 1
  • Reza Farzizadeh
    • 1
  • Hassan-Ali Kalantari
    • 1
  • Asghar Mahmoudi
    • 1
  • Omid Yousefi Bilehsavar
    • 1
  • Ali Mehranpour
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physical Education and Exercise ScienceUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyAzad University of ArdabilArdabilIran

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