Enabling Renewable Energy on both Sides of the Meter: a Focus on State-Level Approaches in New York and Texas

Abstract

Purpose of the Review

This paper focuses on the impact of state renewable energy policies in the decentralized, patchwork energy policy framework of the present-day USA. Approaches in two states in particular, New York and Texas, are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively to gain further insights.

Recent Findings

Previous research has highlighted the importance of state-level policy making in the within the USA and—by extension—on the international stage. Studies have also shown that policy factors in the form of RPS programs, siting, and permitting, and other incentives can drive renewable energy capacity growth and consumer markets.

Summary

The paper finds that—through 2016—varying degrees of success in developing wind and solar markets have been achieved, including dramatic growth of large scale wind in Texas and more modest utility scale wind coupled with strong distributed PV growth in New York. Analysis and discussion also provides potential insights for state policymakers on the efficacy of various incentive structures, infrastructure and siting regimes, and other instruments in producing desired outcomes.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    According to the EIA, the electric power sector comprises about 37% of all energy related CO2 emissions in the U.S. [27].

  2. 2.

    The EIA defines green pricing as programs allow electricity customers the opportunity to purchase electricity generated from renewable resources and to pay for renewable energy development. EIA Green Pricing Data includes customer counts for bundled, major utility programs as well as programs from unbundled, independent electricity retailers.

Abbreviations

Btu :

British thermal unit

CARB :

California Air Resources Board

CO 2 :

Carbon dioxide

CPP :

Clean Power Plan

CREZ :

Competitive Renewable Energy Zone

DOE :

Department of Energy

DSIRE :

Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

EIA :

Energy Information Administration

EPA :

Environmental Protection Agency

ERCOT :

Electric Reliability Council of Texas

FiT :

Feed-in tariff

GHG :

Greenhouse gas

kW :

Kilowatt

kWh :

Kilowatt hour

MW :

Megawatt

MWh :

Megawatt hour

NEG :

Net excess generation

NREL :

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

NYCES :

New York Clean Energy Standard

NYISO :

New York Independent System Operator

NYPSC :

New York Public Service Commission

NYREV :

New York Reforming the Energy Vision

NYSERDA :

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

MassCEC :

Massachusetts Clean Energy Center

PPA :

Power purchase agreement

PTC :

Production tax credit

PUCT :

Public Utility Commission of Texas

PV :

Photovoltaic

R&D :

Research and development

RGGI :

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

REC :

Renewable energy credit

REP :

Retail electricity provider

RPS :

Renewable portfolio standard

RTO :

Regional transmission organization

SIR :

Standard Interconnection Rules

TW :

Terawatt

TWh :

Terawatt hour

UNCED :

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

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Correspondence to Tom H. Cyrs.

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Cyrs, T.H. Enabling Renewable Energy on both Sides of the Meter: a Focus on State-Level Approaches in New York and Texas. Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep 5, 45–58 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40518-018-0096-6

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Keywords

  • Renewables
  • Energy policy
  • Distributed generation
  • Utility-scale generation
  • Federalism
  • States