Purpose of the Review
This paper focuses on the impact of state renewable energy policies in the decentralized, patchwork energy policy framework of the present-day USA. Approaches in two states in particular, New York and Texas, are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively to gain further insights.
Previous research has highlighted the importance of state-level policy making in the within the USA and—by extension—on the international stage. Studies have also shown that policy factors in the form of RPS programs, siting, and permitting, and other incentives can drive renewable energy capacity growth and consumer markets.
The paper finds that—through 2016—varying degrees of success in developing wind and solar markets have been achieved, including dramatic growth of large scale wind in Texas and more modest utility scale wind coupled with strong distributed PV growth in New York. Analysis and discussion also provides potential insights for state policymakers on the efficacy of various incentive structures, infrastructure and siting regimes, and other instruments in producing desired outcomes.
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According to the EIA, the electric power sector comprises about 37% of all energy related CO2 emissions in the U.S. .
The EIA defines green pricing as programs allow electricity customers the opportunity to purchase electricity generated from renewable resources and to pay for renewable energy development. EIA Green Pricing Data includes customer counts for bundled, major utility programs as well as programs from unbundled, independent electricity retailers.
- Btu :
British thermal unit
- CARB :
California Air Resources Board
- CO 2 :
- CPP :
Clean Power Plan
- CREZ :
Competitive Renewable Energy Zone
- DOE :
Department of Energy
- DSIRE :
Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency
- EIA :
Energy Information Administration
- EPA :
Environmental Protection Agency
- ERCOT :
Electric Reliability Council of Texas
- FiT :
- GHG :
- kW :
- kWh :
- MW :
- MWh :
- NEG :
Net excess generation
- NREL :
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- NYCES :
New York Clean Energy Standard
- NYISO :
New York Independent System Operator
- NYPSC :
New York Public Service Commission
- NYREV :
New York Reforming the Energy Vision
- NYSERDA :
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
- MassCEC :
Massachusetts Clean Energy Center
- PPA :
Power purchase agreement
- PTC :
Production tax credit
- PUCT :
Public Utility Commission of Texas
- PV :
- R&D :
Research and development
- RGGI :
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
- REC :
Renewable energy credit
- REP :
Retail electricity provider
- RPS :
Renewable portfolio standard
- RTO :
Regional transmission organization
- SIR :
Standard Interconnection Rules
- TW :
- TWh :
- UNCED :
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted by: • Of importance
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Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
The article is part of the Topical Collection on Energy Markets
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Cyrs, T.H. Enabling Renewable Energy on both Sides of the Meter: a Focus on State-Level Approaches in New York and Texas. Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep 5, 45–58 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40518-018-0096-6
- Energy policy
- Distributed generation
- Utility-scale generation