Enabling Renewable Energy on both Sides of the Meter: a Focus on State-Level Approaches in New York and Texas


Purpose of the Review

This paper focuses on the impact of state renewable energy policies in the decentralized, patchwork energy policy framework of the present-day USA. Approaches in two states in particular, New York and Texas, are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively to gain further insights.

Recent Findings

Previous research has highlighted the importance of state-level policy making in the within the USA and—by extension—on the international stage. Studies have also shown that policy factors in the form of RPS programs, siting, and permitting, and other incentives can drive renewable energy capacity growth and consumer markets.


The paper finds that—through 2016—varying degrees of success in developing wind and solar markets have been achieved, including dramatic growth of large scale wind in Texas and more modest utility scale wind coupled with strong distributed PV growth in New York. Analysis and discussion also provides potential insights for state policymakers on the efficacy of various incentive structures, infrastructure and siting regimes, and other instruments in producing desired outcomes.

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  1. 1.

    According to the EIA, the electric power sector comprises about 37% of all energy related CO2 emissions in the U.S. [27].

  2. 2.

    The EIA defines green pricing as programs allow electricity customers the opportunity to purchase electricity generated from renewable resources and to pay for renewable energy development. EIA Green Pricing Data includes customer counts for bundled, major utility programs as well as programs from unbundled, independent electricity retailers.


Btu :

British thermal unit


California Air Resources Board

CO 2 :

Carbon dioxide


Clean Power Plan


Competitive Renewable Energy Zone


Department of Energy


Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency


Energy Information Administration


Environmental Protection Agency


Electric Reliability Council of Texas

FiT :

Feed-in tariff


Greenhouse gas

kW :


kWh :

Kilowatt hour

MW :


MWh :

Megawatt hour


Net excess generation


National Renewable Energy Laboratory


New York Clean Energy Standard


New York Independent System Operator


New York Public Service Commission


New York Reforming the Energy Vision


New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

MassCEC :

Massachusetts Clean Energy Center


Power purchase agreement


Production tax credit


Public Utility Commission of Texas

PV :


R&D :

Research and development


Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative


Renewable energy credit


Retail electricity provider


Renewable portfolio standard


Regional transmission organization


Standard Interconnection Rules

TW :


TWh :

Terawatt hour


United Nations Conference on Environment and Development


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Correspondence to Tom H. Cyrs.

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Cyrs, T.H. Enabling Renewable Energy on both Sides of the Meter: a Focus on State-Level Approaches in New York and Texas. Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep 5, 45–58 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40518-018-0096-6

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  • Renewables
  • Energy policy
  • Distributed generation
  • Utility-scale generation
  • Federalism
  • States