Lead (Pb) is one of the most dangerous pollutants in the environment. In this research, the effects of Pb on growth, Pb accumulation in root and shoot and the levels of physiological/biochemical stress markers in leaves were investigated in two types of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Plants were grown in sand, watered with half-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution with 0, 5, 25, 100 or 125 μM of lead nitrate. Pb did not significantly affect the root and shoot dry weights. After two weeks of Pb treatment, the plants were harvested and stored for analyses. In leaves Pb significantly decreased the relative water content and the total chlorophyll concentration and significantly increased the proline concentration, but did not significantly affect the peroxidase activity and soluble sugar concentration. Overall, the large-seeded and the small-seeded type responded similarly to Pb, although there were barely significant type *Pb interactions for total chlorophyll and proline. The large-seeded type had significantly higher root and shoot dry weights and a higher foliar soluble sugar concentration, compared to the small-seeded one. Pb accumulation in roots was not significantly different between the types. However, the small-seeded type accumulated much more Pb in the shoot, resulting in a significantly higher root to shoot translocation factor.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adriano, D. C. (2001). Trace elements in terrestrial environments: biochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Adsule, R. N., & Akpapunam, M. (1996). Faba bean (Vicia faba L.). In E. Nwokolo & J. Smartt (Eds.), Food and feed from legumes and oilseeds (pp. 197–202). Boston: Springer.
Amin, H., Arain, B. A., Jahangir, T. M., Abbasi, M. S., & Amin, F. (2018). Accumulation and distribution of lead (Pb) in plant tissues of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): profitable phytoremediation with biofuel crops. Geology, Ecology and Landscapes, 2, 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2018.1452464.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.
Daud, M. K., Variath, M. T., Shafaqat, A., Najeeb, U., Jamil, M., Hayat, Y., et al. (2009). Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 614–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.069.
Garg, N., & Aggarwal, N. (2011). Effects of interactions between cadmium and lead on growth, nitrogen fixation, phytochelatin and glutathione production in mycorrhizal Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 30, 286–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-010-9191-7.
Groppa, M. D., Tomaro, M., & Benarides, M. P. (2007). Polyamines and heavy metal stress: the antioxidant behavior of spermine in cadmium- and copper-treated wheat leaves. BioMetals, 20, 185–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-006-9026-y.
Han, Y., Huang, S., GuHan, J. Y., & QiuChen, S. J. (2008). Tolerance and accumulation of lead by species of Iris L. Ecotoxicology, 17, 853–859. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-008-0248-3.
Heidari Dehno, A., & Mohtadi, A. (2018). The effect of different iron concentrations on lead accumulation in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida Boiss. Ecological Research, 33, 757–765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-018-1558-4.
Irigoyen, J. J., Einerich, D. W., & Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 84, 58–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992.tb08764.x.
Islam, E., Liu, D., Li, T., Yang, X., Jin, X., Mahmooda, Q., et al. (2008). Effect of Pb toxicity on leaf growth, physiology and ultrastructure in the two ecotypes of Elsholtzia argyi. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 914–926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.10.121.
Kamel, H. A. (2008). Lead accumulation and its effect on photosynthesis and free amino acids in Vicia faba grown hydroponically. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2(3), 438–446.
Liu, D., Li, T. Q., Jin, X. F., Yang, X. E., Islam, E., & Mahmood, Q. (2008). Lead induced changes in the growth and antioxidant metabolism of the lead accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50, 129–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00608.x.
Liu, X., & Huang, B. (2000). Heat stress injury in relation to membrane lipid peroxidation in creeping bentgrass. Crop Science, 40, 503–510. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.402503x.
Lone, M. I., He, Z., Stoffella, P. J., & Yang, X. (2008). Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives. Journal of Zheijang University Science B, 9, 210–220. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0710633.
Malar, S., Shivendra Vikram, S., Favas, P. J. C., & Perumal, V. (2014). Lead heavy metal toxicity induced changes on growth and antioxidative enzymes level in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)]. Botanical Studies, 55, 54–65. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40529-014-0054-6.
Martinez, J. P., Lutts, S., Schanck, A., Bajji, M., & Kinet, J. M. (2004). Is osmotic adjustment required for water stress resistance in the Mediterranean shrub Atriplex halimus L? Journal of Plant Physiology, 161(9), 1041–1051.
Mohtadi, A., Ghaderian, S. M., & Schat, H. (2012). Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in heavy metal-hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study. Plant and Soil, 361, 109–118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1320-6.
Mroczek-Zdyrska, M., & Strubi´nskaHanaka, J. A. (2017). Selenium improves physiological parameters and alleviates oxidative stress in shoots of lead-exposed Vicia faba L. minor plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 36, 186–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-016-9629-7.
Paquine, R., & Lechasseur, P. (1979). Observations sure une method de dosage de la proline libre dans les de plantes. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57, 1851–1854. https://doi.org/10.1139/b79-233.
Resende, M. L. V., Nojosa, G. B. A., Cavalcanti, L. S., Aguilar, M. A. G., Silva, L. H. C. P., Perez, J. O., & andrade GCG, Carvalho GA, Castro RM, . (2002). Induction of resistance in cocoa against crinipellis perniciosa and verticillium dahlia by acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM). Plant Pathology, 51, 621–628. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2002.00754.x.
Sharma, P., & Dubey, R. S. (2005). Lead toxicity in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17, 35–52. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202005000100004.
Yan, X., Yu, D., Wang, H., & Wang, J. (2006). Response of submerged plant (Vallisneria spinulosa) clones to lead stress in the heterogenous soil. Chemosphere, 63, 1459–1465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.09.030.
We would like to thank the Yasouj University for providing research facilities for this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Panahandeh, A., Mohtadi, A., Masoumiasl, A. et al. The effects of lead on growth and stress markers in two types of Vicia faba L.. Plant Physiol. Rep. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-020-00566-w
- Vicia faba