Reading Instruction for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Quality Analysis

Abstract

This study reviews the literature on reading instruction consistent with the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000) for children with autism spectrum disorder, using the Evaluative Method for Determining Evidence-Based Practices in Autism to assess research quality (Reichow, Volkmar, & Cicchetti, 2008). A search of the literature published between 2009 and 2017 identified 10,779 relevant records, of which 19 met inclusion criteria. Studies reported gains in phonics, reading accuracy, reading fluency, and/or reading comprehension skills; however, few were of adequate or strong quality. Instruction that incorporated multiple Big Five elements from the NRP was associated with gains in reading accuracy and comprehension as well as relatively high quality ratings. Clinical implications and priorities for future research are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    A quality analysis for the two studies in Whalon et al. (2009) which met inclusion criteria in the current review is provided in Appendix Table 7.

  2. 2.

    The third instrument in the evaluative framework, criteria for the determination of evidence-based practice, provides a method for aggregating report strength ratings across studies. This instrument was not utilized in the current review (see the “Limitations” section).

  3. 3.

    Interobserver agreement statistics interpreted as per guidelines suggested by Cicchetti (2001).

  4. 4.

    Effect size estimates based on instruction group pre- and post-instruction scores showed gains in reading accuracy and comprehension which were smaller in magnitude.

References

References marked with an asterisk were included in the review.

  1. *Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Browder, D., & Wood, L. (2014). Effects of systematic instruction and an augmentative communication device on phonics skills acquisition for students with moderate intellectual disability who are nonverbal. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 49(4), 517–532. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24582348

  2. *Ainsworth, M. K., Evmenova, A. S., Behrmann, M., & Jerome, M. (2016). Teaching phonics to groups of middle school students with autism, intellectual disabilities and complex communication needs. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 56, 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.06.001.

  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Arciuli, J., Stevens, K., Trembath, D., & Simpson, I. (2013). The relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56, 1837–1844. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0034).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Australian Education Act 2013 (Aus). Retrieved from https:www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2017C00205.

  6. *Bailey, R. L., Angell, M. E., & Stoner, J. B. (2011). Improving literacy skills in students with complex communication needs who use augmentative/alternative communication systems. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 352–368. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23880591

  7. *Bailey, B., Arciuli, J., & Stancliffe, R. J. (2017). Effects of ABRACADABRA literacy instruction on children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(2), 257–268. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000138.

  8. *Barnes, C. S., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2013). Effects of fluency instruction on selection-based and topography-based comprehension measures. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(6), 639–647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.02.010.

  9. Basil, C., & Reyes, S. (2003). Acquisition of literacy skills by children with severe disability. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 19, 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1191/0265659003ct242oa.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. *Beecher, L., & Childre, A. (2012). Increasing literacy skills for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Effects of integrating comprehensive reading instruction with sign language. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47(4), 487–501. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23879641

  11. *Benedek-Wood, E., McNaughton, D., & Light, J. (2016). Instruction in letter-sound correspondences for children with autism and limited speech. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 36(1), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121415593497.

  12. *Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of wh-question graphic organizers on reading comprehension skills of students with autism spectrum disorders. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 48(2), 236–244. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23880642

  13. Brown, H. M., Oram-Cardy, J., & Johnson, A. (2013). A meta-analysis of the reading comprehension skills of individuals on the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(4), 932–955. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1638-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance. (2009). The learning toolkit (Version 2.27) [Web application]. Montreal, Canada: Concordia University. Retrieved from http://doe.concordia.ca/cslp/ICT-LTK.php

  15. Cicchetti, D. V. (2001). Methodological commentary the precision of reliability and validity estimates re-visited: distinguishing between clinical and statistical significance of sample size requirements. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 695–700. https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.23.5.695.1249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cicchetti, D. V. (2011). On the reliability and accuracy of the evaluative method for identifying evidence-based practices in autism. In B. Reichow, P. Doehring, D. V. Cicchetti, & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Evidence-based practices and treatments for children with autism (pp. 25–39). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.1.155.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Coleman-Martin, M. B., Heller, K. W., Cihak, D. F., & Irvine, K. L. (2005). Using computer-assisted instruction and the nonverbal reading approach to teach word identification. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 80–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/10883576050200020401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Coulter, G., & Sasnett, R. (2016). Teaching Sam to read: an integrated team approach with one child with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 44-53. Retrieved from http://aasep.org/aasep-publications/journal-of-the-american-academy-of-special-education-professionals-jaasep/jaasep-winter-2016/teaching-sam-to-read-an-integrated-team-approach-with-one-child-with-asd/index.html

  21. DeWalt, D. A., Berkman, N. D., Sheridan, S., Lohr, K. N., & Pignone, M. P. (2004). Literacy and health outcomes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19(12), 1228–1239. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.40153.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Doehring, P., Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2007, March). Is it evidenced-based? How to evaluate claims of effectiveness for autism. Boston: Paper presented at the International Association for Positive Behavior Support Conference.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Dugan, E., Kamps, D., Leonard, B., Watkins, N., Rheinberger, A., & Stackhaus, J. (1995). Effects of cooperative learning groups during social studies for students with autism and fourth-grade peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 175–188. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1995.28-175.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed.). Minneapolis: Pearson Assessments.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Education Act (2011) (UK). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2011/21/ contents/enacted/data.html.

  26. El Zein, F., Gevarter, C., Bryant, B., Son, S. H., Bryant, D., Kim, M., & Solis, M. (2016a). A comparison between iPad-assisted and teacher-directed reading instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 28(2), 195–215. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-015-9458-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. El Zein, F., Solis, M., Lang, R., & Kim, M. K. (2016b). Embedding perseverative interest of a child with autism in text may result in improved reading comprehension: a pilot study. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 19(3), 141–145. https://doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2014.915893.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. El Zein, F., Solis, M., Vaughn, S., & McCulley, L. (2014). Reading comprehension interventions for students with autism spectrum disorders: a synthesis of research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1303–1322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1989-2.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Engelmann, S., & Bruner, E. (2003). Reading mastery (Classic ed.). Columbus: SRA/McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Finnegan, E., & Mazin, A. L. (2016). Strategies for increasing reading comprehension skills in students with autism spectrum disorder: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(2), 187–219. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2016.0007.

  32. Gevarter, C., Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B., Watkins, L., Zamora, C., & Sammarco, N. (2016). Mathematics interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 3(3), 224–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-016-0078-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. *Grindle, C. F., Hughes, C. J., Saville, M., Huxley, K., & Hastings, R. P. (2013). Teaching early reading skills to children with autism using MimioSprout Early Reading. Behavioral Interventions, 28(3), 203–224. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1364.

  34. Hedges, L., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Heimann, M., Nelson, K., Tjus, T., & Gillberg, C. (1995). Increasing reading and communication skills in children with autism through an interactive multimedia computer program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 459–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02178294.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Heller, K. W., & Coleman-Martin, M. B. (2007). Strategies for promoting literacy for students who have physical disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 28(2), 69–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/15257401070280020701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hill, D. A., & Flores, M. M. (2015). A preliminary investigation of the benefits of computer-aided instruction in reading decoding for students with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 72–82. Retrieved from http://aasep.org/aasep-publications/journal-of-the-american-academy-of-special-education-professionals-jaasep/jaasep-springsummer-2015/a-preliminary-investigation-of-the-benefits-of-computer-aided-instruction-in-reading-decoding-for-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-other-developmental-disabilities/index.html

  38. Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 165–179. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290507100203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. *Howorth, S., Lopata, C., Thomeer, M., & Rodgers, J. (2016). Effects of the TWA strategy on expository reading comprehension of students with autism. British Journal of Special Education, 43(1), 39–59. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12122.

  40. Huemer, S., & Mann, V. (2010). A comprehensive profile of decoding and comprehension in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(4), 485–493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0892-3.

  41. *Johnston, S. S., Buchanan, S., & Davenport, L. (2009). Comparison of fixed and gradual array when teaching sound-letter correspondence to two children with autism who use AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 25(2), 136–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/07434610902921516.

  42. Kaldenberg, E. R., Watt, S. J., & Therrien, W. J. (2015). Reading instruction in science for students with learning disabilities: a meta-analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(3), 160–173. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948714550204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. H. (1998). Assessing early literacy skills in a problem solving model: dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement (pp. 113–142). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Kamps, D. M., Barbetta, P. M., Leonard, B. R., & Delquadri, J. (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: an integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote peer interactions among students with autism and general education peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 49–61. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1994.27-49.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. *Kamps, D. M., Heitzman-Powell, L., Rosenberg, N., Mason, R., Schwartz, I., & Romine, R. S. (2016). Effects of reading mastery as a small group intervention for young children with ASD. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 28(5), 703–722. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-016-9503-3.

  46. Kamps, D. M., Leonard, B., Potucek, J., & Garrison-Harrell, L. G. (1995). Cooperative learning groups in reading: an integration strategy for students with autism and general classroom peers. Behavioral Disorders, 21, 89–109 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23888333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Kamps, D. M., Locke, P., Delquadri, J., & Hall, R. V. (1989). Increasing academic skills of students with autism using fifth grade peers as tutors. Education and Treatment of Children, 12, 38–51 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42899092.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Kim, M. K., McKenna, J. W., & Park, Y. (2017). The use of computer-assisted instruction to improve the reading comprehension of students with learning disabilities: an evaluation of the evidence base according to the what works clearinghouse standards. Remedial and Special Education, 38(4), 233–245. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932517693396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Knight, V., McKissick, B. R., & Saunders, A. (2013). A review of technology-based interventions to teach academic skills to students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(11), 2628–2648. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1814-y.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Knight, V. F., & Sartini, E. (2015). A comprehensive literature review of comprehension strategies in core content areas for students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 1213–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2280-x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Layng, T. V. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral Technology Today, 3, 7–20 Retrieved from http://behavior.org/httpdocs/resources/191.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Learning A-Z. (2013). Mimiosprout early reading [Computer software]. Retrieved from https://www.headsprout.com

  53. *Leytham, P. A., Pierce, T., Baker, J., Miller, S., & Tandy, D. (2015). Evaluation of the nonverbal reading approach for two 12 to 13-year-old students with ASD. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 9, 68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.09.014.

  54. Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (2012). Supporting the communication, language, and literacy development of children with complex communication needs: state of the science and future research priorities. Assistive Technology, 24(1), 34–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2011.648717.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Lohman, D. F., & Hagen, E. P. (2001). Cognitive Abilities Test. Itasca: Riverside.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Ma, H. H. (2006). An alternative method for quantitative synthesis of single-subject researches: Percentage of data points exceeding the median. Behavior Modification, 30(5), 598–617. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445504272974.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Mason, L. H. (2013). Teaching students who struggle with learning to think before, while, and after reading: effects of self-regulated strategy development instruction. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 29(2), 124–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2013.758561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Mirenda, P., & Erickson, K. A. (2000). Augmentative communication and literacy. In A. M. Wetherby & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorders: a transactional developmental perspective (pp. 225–250). Baltimore: Brookes.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Nation, K., Clarke, P., Wright, B., & Williams, C. (2006). Patterns of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 911–919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0130-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Nippold, M. (2007). Later language development: School-age children, adolescents and young adults (3rd ed.). Austin: Pro-Ed.

    Google Scholar 

  62. No Child Left Behind Act (2001) (US). Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml

  63. *Nopprapun, M., & Holloway, J. (2014). A comparison of fluency training and discrete trial instruction to teach letter sounds to children with ASD: Acquisition and learning outcomes. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(7), 788–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.03.015.

  64. Norbury, C., & Nation, K. (2011). Understanding variability in reading comprehension in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: Interactions with language status and decoding skill. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888431003623553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. O’Connor, I. M., & Klein, P. D. (2004). Exploration of strategies for facilitating the reading comprehension of high-functioning students with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:jadd.0000022603.44077.6b.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  66. Palincsar, A., & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117–175. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532690xci0102_1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Parker, R. I., & Vannest, K. (2009). An improved effect size for single-case research: Nonoverlap of All Pairs. Behavior Therapy, 40(4), 357–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2008.10.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. PCI Educational Publishing. (2007). PCI reading program: level one [Curriculum]. San Antonio: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Perry, A., Flanagan, H. E., Geier, J. D., & Freeman, N. L. (2009). Brief report: the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in young children with autism spectrum disorders at different cognitive levels. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(7), 1066–1078. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0704-9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. Ramdoss, S., Mulloy, A., Lang, R., O’Reilly, M., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G., ... & El Zein, F. (2011). Use of computer-based interventions to improve literacy skills in students with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1306–1318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.004.

  71. Reichow, B. (2011). Development, procedures, and application of the evaluative method for determining evidence-based practices in autism. In B. Reichow, P. Doehring, D. V. Cicchetti, & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Evidence-based practices and treatments for children with autism (pp. 25–39). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Reichow, B., Barton, E. E., Volkmar, F. R., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2007). The status of research on interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, Seattle, WA.

  73. Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2010). Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 149–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0842-0.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. Reichow, B., Volkmar, F. R., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2008). Development of the evaluative method for evaluating and determining evidence-based practices in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1311–1319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0517-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. *Reisner, C. D., Lancaster, A. L., McMullin, W. A., & Ho, T. (2014). A preliminary investigation of evidence-based interventions to increase oral reading fluency in children with autism. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30(1), 50–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377903.2013.869785.

  76. Richardson, J. T. (2011). Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review, 6, 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Ricketts, J., Jones, C. R., Happé, F., & Charman, T. (2013). Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: the role of oral language and social functioning. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(4), 807–816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1619-4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  78. Roman, S. P. (2004). Illiteracy and older adults: Individual and societal implications. Educational Gerontology, 30, 79–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601270490266257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Rose, J. (2009). Identifying and teaching children and young people with dyslexia and literacy difficulties: an independent report from sir Jim Rose to the secretary of state for children, schools and families. London: Department for Schools, Children and Families.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Rosenbaum, M. S., & Breiling, J. (1976). The development and functional control of reading comprehension behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 323–333. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1976.9-323.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. Rowe, K. (2006). Effective teaching practices for students with and without learning difficulties: issues and implications surrounding key findings and recommendations from the national inquiry into the teaching of literacy. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 11(3), 99–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/19404150609546813.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Sabey, C. V., Charlton, C. T., Pyle, D., Lignugaris-Kraft, B., & Ross, S. W. (2017). A review of classwide or universal social, emotional, behavioral programs for students in kindergarten. Review of Educational Research, 87(3), 512–543. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316689307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2007). Assessment, diagnosis and clinical interventions for children and young people with autism spectrum disorders: a national clinical guideline. Retrieved from http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign98.pdf. Accessed 5 January 2010.

  84. Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Casto, G. (1987). The quantitative synthesis of single-subject research: methodology and validation. Remedial and Special Education, 8(2), 24–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/074193258700800206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1998). Summarizing single subject research: issues and applications. Behavior Modification, 22, 221–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/01454455980223001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Senokossoff, G. W. (2016). Developing reading comprehension skills in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder: a review of the research, 1990–2012. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 32(3), 223–246. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2014.936574.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Siegel, M., & Beaulieu, A. A. (2012). Psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and synthesis for evidence-based practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(8), 1592–1605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1399-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Smart, D., Youssef, G. J., Sanson, A., Prior, M., Toumbourou, J. W., & Olsson, C. A. (2017). Consequences of childhood reading difficulties and behaviour problems for educational achievement and employment in early adulthood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(2), 288–308. https://doi.org/10.1353/foc.2005.0012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Snow, P. C. (2016). Elizabeth Usher Memorial Lecture: language is literacy is language—positioning speech-language pathology in education policy, practice, paradigms and polemics. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18(3), 216–228. https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2015.1112837.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  90. Solis, M., El Zein, F., Vaughn, S., McCulley, L. V., & Falcomata, T. S. (2016). Reading comprehension interventions for students with autism spectrum disorders: an alternating treatments comparison. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 31(4), 284–299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357615583464.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Spector, J. E. (2011). Sight word instruction for students with autism: an evaluation of the evidence base. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(10), 1411–1422. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1165-x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  92. Stanovich, K. E., Cunningham, A. E., & West, R. F. (1998). Literacy experiences and the shaping of cognition. In S. G. Paris & H. M. Wellman (Eds.), Global prospects for education: development, culture, and schooling (pp. 253–288). Washington: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  93. *Stringfield, S. G., Luscre, D., & Gast, D. L. (2011). Effects of a story map on accelerated reader postreading test scores in students with high-functioning autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 26(4), 218–229. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357611423543.

  94. Tjus, T., Heimann, M., & Nelson, K. (1998). Gains in literacy through the use of a specially developed multimedia computer strategy. Autism, 2, 139–156. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361398022003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. *Turner, H., Remington, A., & Hill, V. (2017). Developing an intervention to improve reading comprehension for children and young people with autism spectrum disorders. Educational & Child Psychology, 34(2), 13–26. Retrieved from http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1557365/

  96. Wasik, B. A., & Bond, M. A. (2001). Beyond the pages of a book: interactive book reading and language development in preschool classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 243–250. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.93.2.243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Watkins, L., O’Reilly, M., Kuhn, M., Gevarter, C., Lancioni, G. E., Sigafoos, J., & Lang, R. (2015). A review of peer-mediated social interaction interventions for students with autism in inclusive settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(4), 1070–1083. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2264-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Wendt, O., & Miller, B. (2012). Quality appraisal of single-subject experimental designs: an overview and comparison of different appraisal tools. Education and Treatment of Children, 35, 235–268. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2012.0010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Whalen, C., Moss, D., Ilan, A., Vaupel, M., Fielding, P., MacDonald, K., ... & Symon, J. (2010). Efficacy of TeachTown: basics computer-assisted intervention for the intensive comprehensive autism program in Los Angeles unified school district. Autism, 14, 179–197. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361310363282.

  100. Whalon, K. J., Al Otaiba, S., & Delano, M. E. (2009). Evidence-based reading instruction for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(1), 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357608328515.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  101. Whalon, K., & Hanline, M. F. (2008). Effects of a reciprocal questioning intervention on the question generation and responding of children with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 367–387 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23879798.

    Google Scholar 

  102. *Whitcomb, S. A., Bass, J.D., & Luiselli, J. K. (2011). Effects of a computer-based early reading program (Headsprout®) on word list and text reading skills in a student with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23(6), 491–499. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-011-9240-6.

  103. *Zakas, T. L., Browder, D. M., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Heafner, T. (2013). Teaching social studies content to students with autism using a graphic organizer intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(9), 1075–1086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.06.001.

Download references

Funding

This work was partly supported by a mid-career research fellowship awarded to Joanne Arciuli by the Australian Research Council (FT130101570).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Benjamin Bailey.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix

Appendix

Table 7 Quality analysis: studies in Whalon et al. (2009) suitable for inclusion into the current review

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bailey, B., Arciuli, J. Reading Instruction for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Quality Analysis. Rev J Autism Dev Disord 7, 127–150 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-019-00185-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Autism
  • Reading
  • Literacy
  • National Reading Panel
  • Systematic review
  • Quality analysis