Advertisement

Assessment and Management of Tic Disorders in Pediatric Primary Care Settings

  • Mina YadegarEmail author
  • Sisi Guo
  • Emily J. Ricketts
  • Samuel H. Zinner
Tourette's Syndrome (M Specht and T Zeiger, Section Editors)
  • 13 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Tourette’s Syndrome

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Pediatricians and other primary care providers are often the first and sole healthcare clinicians of patients who present with tics. However, limited primary care pediatric training in neuropsychiatric concerns, as well as perceived lack of comfort and preparation, makes it challenging for these clinicians to confidently identify and manage tic disorders.

Recent Findings

Current empirical findings of tic disorder management relevant to pediatric physicians, including assessment, psychoeducation, behavioral interventions, psychotropic medications, and alternative treatments are reviewed.

Summary

This article discusses neuropsychiatric and medical complexities of tic disorder assessment, with particular emphasis on differential and comorbid diagnoses. Tiered referral recommendations, based on symptom severity, impairment, and consideration of comorbid conditions, are provided. Future directions for tic management, including dissemination of evidence-based treatments of tic disorders and multidisciplinary teams within pediatric primary care settings, are included.

Keywords

Tic disorders Tourette’s syndrome Pediatric primary care Pediatricians 

Notes

Funding Acknowledgment

The research reported in this publication was supported by National Institute of Mental Health K23MH113884 grant funding to Dr. Ricketts.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Black KJ, Black ER, Greene DJ, Schlaggar BL. Provisional tic disorder: what to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing. F1000Res. 2016;5:696.  https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.8428.1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ganos C, Martino D, Pringsheim T. Tics in the pediatric population: pragmatic management. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2017;4:160–72.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scahill L, Specht M, Page C. The prevalence of tic disorders and clinical characteristics in children. J Obsessive Compuls Relat Disord. 2014;3:394–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2014.06.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Woods DW, Conelea CA, Himle MB. Behavior therapy for Tourette’s disorder: utilization in a community sample and an emerging area of practice for psychologists. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2010;41:518–25.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kruer MC. Pediatric movement disorders. Pediatrics Rev. 2015;36:104–16.  https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.36-3-104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mills S, Hedderly T. A guide to childhood motor stereotypies, tic disorders and the Tourette spectrum for the primary care practitioner. Ulster Med J. 2014;83:22–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marcks BA, Woods DW, Teng EJ, Twohig MP. What do those who know, know? Investigating providers’ knowledge about Tourette’s syndrome and its treatment. Cogn Behav Pract. 2004;11:298–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(04)80044-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cuenca J, Glazebrook C, Kendall T, Hedderly T, Heyman I, Jackson G, et al. Perceptions of treatment for tics among young people with Tourette syndrome and their parents: a mixed methods study. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15:46.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0430-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boreman CD, Thomasgard MC, Fernandez SA, Coury DL. Resident training in developmental/behavioral pediatrics: where do we stand? Clin Pediatr. 2007;46:135–45.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0009922806290456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cox JH, Seri S, Cavanna AE. Sensory aspects of Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018;88:170–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cravedi E, Deniau E, Giannitelli M, Xavier J, Hartmann A, Cohen D. Tourette syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a comprehensive review. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2017;11:59.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-017-0196-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zinner SH, Mink JW. Movement disorders I: tics and stereotypies. Pediatrics Rev. 2010;31:223–33.  https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.31-6-223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen SC, Leckman JF, Bloch MH. Clinical assessment of Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:997–1007.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.11.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Müller-Vahl KR, Sambrani T, Jakubovski E. Tic disorders revisited: introduction of the term “tic spectrum disorders”. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019;1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-01272-7.
  16. 16.
    Spencer T, Biederman J, Harding M, Wilens T, Faraone S. The relationship between tic disorders and Tourette’s syndrome revisited. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995 Sep;34:1133–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199509000-00009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar A, Trescher W, Byler D. Tourette syndrome and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2016;3:217–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-016-0099-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leckman JF, Zhang H, Vitale A, Lahnin F, Lynch K, Bondi C, et al. Course of tic severity in Tourette syndrome: the first two decades. Pediatrics. 1998;102:14–9.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.102.1.14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peterson BS, Pine DS, Cohen P, Brook JS. Prospective, longitudinal study of tic, obsessive-compulsive, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in an epidemiological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40:685–95.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200106000-00014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lowe TL, Capriotti MR, McBurnett K. Long-term follow-up of patients with Tourette’s syndrome. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2019;6:40–5.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caligiore D, Mannella F, Arbib MA, Baldassarre G. Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system produce motor tics in Tourette syndrome. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:1–34.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.Pcbi.1005395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Worbe Y, Marrakchi-Kacem L, Lecomte S, Valabregue R, Poupon F, Guevara P, et al. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Brain. 2015;138:472–82.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bronfeld M, Bar-Gad I. Tic disorders: what happens in the basal ganglia? Neurosci. 2013;19:101–8.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858412444466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tourette Association of America (2018) 2018 impact survey: assessing the impact of Tourette syndrome and tic disorders on individuals and families. In: Research and medical. https://s3.amazonaws.com/tourette.org/media/20190319084932/TAA-Impact-Survey-Results-2018_Final-Jan2018_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 21 April 2019.
  25. 25.
    •• Cath DC, Hedderly T, Ludolph AG, Stern JS, Murphy T, Hartmann A, et al. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I: assessment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:155–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-011-0164-6 This report developed by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette syndrome marks the first set of European clinical assessment guidelines on tic disorders and co-occurring conditions across youth and adults. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cavanna AE, Rickards H. The psychopathological spectrum of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1008–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.10.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simpson HA, Jung L, Murphy TK. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders: a review of the current literature. Curr Psychiat Rep. 2011;13:351–6.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-011-0223-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Franklin ME, Harrison JP, Benavides KL. Obsessive-compulsive and tic-related disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2012;21:555–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2012.05.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marwitz L, Pringsheim T. Clinical utility of screening for anxiety and depression in children with Tourette syndrome. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018;27:15–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ghosh D, Rajan PV, Das D, Datta P, Rothner AD, Erenberg G. Sleep disorders in children with Tourette syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2014;51:31–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.03.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA. The manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families; 2000.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Achenbach TM, Rescorla L. The manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families; 2001.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    SwansonJM. Swanson, Nolan and Pelham questionnaire (SNAP). In: Online ADHD rating scales. DefiniPoint. https://www.attentionpoint.com/x_upload/media/images/snap_description_with_questions-1.pdf. Accessed 7 Jan 2019.
  34. 34.
    Chang S, Himle MB, Tucker BT, Woods DW, Piacentini J. Initial psychometric properties of a brief parent-report instrument for assessing tic severity in children with chronic tic disorders. Child Family Behav Ther. 2009;31:181–91.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07317100903099100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Woods DW, Piacentini J, Himle MB, Chang S. Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS): initial psychometric results and examination of the premonitory urge phenomenon in youths with tic disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2005;26:397–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barfell KSF, Snyder RR, Isaacs-Cloes KM, Garris JF, Roeckner AR, Horn PS, et al. Parent and patient perceptions of functional impairment due to Tourette syndrome: development of a shortened version of the child Tourette syndrome impairment scale. J Child Neurol. 2017;32:725–30.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073817702782.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Su MT, McFarlane F, Cavanna AE, Termine C, Murray I, et al. The English version of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome—quality of life scale for children and adolescents (C&A-GTS-QOL): a validation study in the United Kingdom. J Child Neurol. 2017;32:76–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073816670083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shytle RD, Silver AA, Sheehan KH, Wilkinson BJ, Newman M, Sanberg PR, et al. The Tourette’s disorder scale (TODS): development, reliability, and validity. Assessment. 2003;10:273–87.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191103255497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gaffney GR, Sieg K, Hellings J. The MOVES: a self-rating scale for Tourette’s syndrome. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1994;4:269–80.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.1994.4.269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wolraich ML, Lambert W, Doffing MA, Bickman L, Simmons T, Worley K. Psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic parent rating scale in a referred population. J Pediatr Psychol. 2003;28:559–68.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsg046.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wolraich ML, Feurer ID, Hannah JN, Baumgaertel A, Pinnock TY. Obtaining systematic teacher reports of disruptive behavior disorders utilizing DSM-IV. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1998;26:141–52.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022673906401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Conners CK. Conners comprehensive behavior rating scales. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems Inc.; 2014.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Piacentini J, Langley A, Roblek T. Cognitive behavioral treatment of childhood OCD: it’s only a false alarm, therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Foa EB, Coles ME, Huppert JD, Pasupuleti RV, Franklin ME, March J. Development and validation of a child version of the obsessive compulsive inventory. Behav Ther. 2010;41:121–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.02.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Storch EA, Khanna M, Merlo LJ, Loew BA, Franklin M, Reid JM, et al. Children’s Florida obsessive compulsive inventory: psychometric properties and feasibility of a self-report measure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2009;40:467–83.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0138-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D, Cully M, Balach L, Kaufman J, et al. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:545–53.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199704000-00018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Birmaher B, Brent DA, Chiappetta L, Bridge J, Monga S, Baugher M. Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): a replication study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38:1230–6.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199910000-00011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    March JS. Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). 2nd ed. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems Inc; 2012.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kovacs M. Manual for Children’s Depression Inventory. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems, Inc; 2010.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ricketts EJ, McGuire JF, Chang S, Bose D, Rasch MM, Woods DW, et al. Benchmarking treatment response in Tourette’s disorder: a psychometric evaluation and signal detection analysis of the parent tic questionnaire. Behav Ther. 2018;49:46–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McGuire JF, Kugler BB, Park JM, Horng B, Lewin AB, Murphy TK, et al. Evidence-based assessment of compulsive skin picking, chronic tic disorders and trichotillomania in children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2012;43:855–83.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0300-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    • Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT, Ort SI, Swartz KL, Stevenson J, et al. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1989;28:566–73.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198907000-00015 This study reports on psychometric properties for a clinician-rated interview of tic symptoms, now considered a gold-standard measure of tic severity. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dale RC. Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2017;29:665–73.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Krebs G, Heyman I. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child. 2015;100:495–9.  https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306934.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lewin AB, Park JM, Storch EA. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. In: Vasa RA, Roy AK, editors. Pediatric anxiety disorders: a clinical guide. New York: Humana Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Freeman RD. Stereotypic movement disorder. In: Freeman RD, editor. Tics and Tourette syndrome. London: Mac Keith Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fahn S. Classification of movement disorders. Mov Disord. 2011;26:947–57.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.23759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mackenzie K. Stereotypic movement disorders. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2018;25:19–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spen.2017.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Godar SC, Bortolato M. What makes you tic? Translational approaches to study the role of stress and contextual triggers in Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;76:123–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.10.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    • Mansueto CS, Keuler DJ. Tic or compulsion?: it’s Tourettic OCD. Behav Modif. 2005;29:784–99.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445505279261 This paper contributed to the case conceptualization of patients with Tourettic OCD as well as treatment recommendations for these patients. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    • Murphy TK, Lewin AB, Storch EA, Stock S, AACAP-CQI. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with tic disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;52:1341–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.015 This reports on the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry’s assessment and treatment guidelines for children and adolescents with tic disorders. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hawley JS, Johnson MA, Dennison DH. Tourette syndrome. In: Feld LG, Mahan JD, editors. Succinct pediatrics: evaluation and management for newborn, genetic, neurologic, and developmental-behavioral disorders. American Academy of Pediatrics: Elk Grove Village; 2018.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    •• Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Garvey M, Mittleman B, Allen AJ, Perlmutter S, et al. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: Clinical description of the first 50 cases. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:264–71.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.155.2.264 This study provides a description of the first 50 children meeting the working diagnostic criteria for PANDAS, a discussion of clinical implications and suggests a model of pathogenesis. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    • Swedo SE, Leckman JF, Rose NR. From research subgroup to clinical syndrome: modifying the PANDAS criteria to describe PANS (pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). Pediatr Therapeut. 2012;2:113.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0665.1000113 This report is a summary of a 2010 workshop assembled to address the limitations of PANDAS diagnostic criteria and revise them, yielding PANS. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    • Chang K, Frankovich J, Cooperstock M, Cunningham MW, Latimer ME, Murphy TK, et al. Clinical evaluation of youth with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): recommendations from the 2013 PANS consensus conference. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015;25:3–13.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2014.0084 This report summarizes proceedings at the first PANS Consensus Conference held in 2013. It provides recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of children presenting with PANS. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sigra S, Hesselmark E, Bejerot S. Treatment of PANDAS and PANS: a systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018;86:51–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.01.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Singer HS. Autoantibody-associated movement disorders in children: proven and proposed. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2017;24:168–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spen.2017.08.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blackburn JS. Tic disorders and PANDAS. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2018;25:25–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spen.2017.12.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Martino D, Pringsheim TM. Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders: an update on clinical management. Expert Rev Neurother. 2018;18:125–37.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2018.1413938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    • Verdellen C, van de Griendt J, Hartmann A, Murphy T, ESSTS Guidelines Group. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:197–207.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-011-0167-3 This report provides guidelines by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette syndrome on behavioral and psychosocial treatment of tic disorders and recommends behavior therapy as a first-line intervention for patients with tics. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Conelea CA, Woods DW. The influence of contextual factors on tic expression in Tourette’s syndrome: a review. J Psychosom Res. 2008;65:487–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.04.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Himle MB, Capriotti MR, Hayes LP, Ramanujam K, Scahill L, Sukhodolsky DG, et al. Variables associated with tic exacerbation in children with chronic tic disorders. Behav Modif. 2014;38:163–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445514531016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    • Conelea CA, Woods DW, Zinner SH, Budman C, Murphy T, Scahill LD, et al. Exploring the impact of chronic tic disorders on youth: results from the Tourette Syndrome Impact Survey. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2011;42:219–42.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0211-4 This survey evaluated tic-related functional impairment in one of the largest samples of parents and their children with chronic tic disorders. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Houghton DC, Alexander JR, Woods DW. The psychosocial impact of tic disorders: nature and intervention. J Dev Phys Disabil. 2016;28:347–65.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-015-9467-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sulkowski ML, McGuire JF, Tesoro A. Treating tics and Tourette’s disorder in school settings. Can J Sch Psychol. 2016;31:47–62.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573515601820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wu MS, McGuire JF. Psychoeducation about tic disorders and treatment. In: McGuire JF, Murphy TK, Piacentini J, Storch EA, editors. The clinician’s guide to treatment and management of youth with Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. London: Academic Press; 2018. p. 21–41.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McGuire JF, Ricketts EJ, Piacentini J, Murphy TK, Storch EA, Lewin AB. Behavior therapy for tic disorders: an evidenced-based review and new directions for treatment research. Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2015;2:309–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-015-0063-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    • Woods DW, Piacentini JC, Chang SW, Deckersbach T, Ginsburg GS, Peterson AL, et al. Managing Tourette syndrome: a behavioral intervention for children and adults, therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008. This book is the therapist manual for comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics stemming from the randomized, controlled trial of behavior therapy for tics. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lyon GJ, Samar SM, Conelea C, Trujillo MR, Lipinski CM, Bauer CC, et al. Testing tic suppression: comparing the effects of dexmethylphenidate to no medication in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette’s disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010;20:283–9.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2010.0032.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chorpita BF, Weisz JR. MATCH-ADTC: modular approach to therapy for children with anxiety, depression, trauma, or conduct problems. Satellite Beach: PracticeWise; 2009.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sauer-Zavala S, Gutner CA, Farchione TJ, Boettcher HT, Bullis JR, Barlow DH. Current definitions of “transdiagnostic” in treatment development: a search for consensus. Behav Ther. 2017;48:128–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Specht MW, Edwards KR, Perry-Parrish C, Amatya K. Brief trans-diagnostic parent training: a strengths-based, parent-centered treatment for youth with Tourette syndrome. In: McGuire JF, Murphy TK, Piacentini J, Storch EA, editors. The clinician’s guide to treatment and management of youth with Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. London: Academic Press; 2018. p. 225–53.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lebowitz ER, Marin C, Martino A, Shimshoni Y, Silverman WK. Parent-based treatment as efficacious as cognitive behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety: a randomized noninferiority study of supportive parenting for anxious childhood emotions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.02.014.
  84. 84.
    Comer JS, Puliafico AC, Aschenbrand SG, McKnight K, Robin JA, Goldfine ME, et al. A pilot feasibility evaluation of the CALM Program for anxiety disorders in early childhood. J Anxiety Disord. 2012;26:40–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.08.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Puliafico AC, Comer JS, Pincus DB. Adapting parent-child interaction therapy to treat anxiety disorders in young children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2012;21:607–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2012.05.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Barkley RA. Defiant children: a clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kazdin AE. Parent management training: treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Eyberg SM, Funderburk BW. Parent–child interaction therapy protocol. PCIT International: Gainesville; 2011.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Peris TS, Rozenman MS, Sugar CA, McCracken JT, Piacentini J. Targeted family intervention for complex cases of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;56:1034–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.10.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Woods DW, Himle MB. Creating tic suppression: comparing the effects of verbal instruction to differential reinforcement. J Appl Behav Anal. 2004;37:417–20.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-417.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Himle MB, Woods DW. An experimental evaluation of tic suppression and the tic rebound effect. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43:1443–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2004.11.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Himle MB, Woods DW, Bunaciu L. Evaluating the role of contingency in differentially reinforced tic suppression. J Appl Behav Anal. 2008;41:285–9.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2008.41-285.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ginsburg GS, Kingery JN. Management of familial issues in persons with Tourette syndrome. In: Woods DW, Piacentini J, Walkup JT, editors. Treating Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: a guide for practitioners. New York: Guilford Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Capriotti MR, Piacentini JC, Himle MB, Ricketts EJ, Espil FM, Lee HJ, et al. Assessing environmental consequences of ticcing in youth with chronic tic disorders: the tic accommodation and reactions scale. Child Health Care. 2015;44:205–20.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02739615.2014.948164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    •• Azrin NH, Nunn RG. Habit-reversal: a method of eliminating nervous habits and tics. Behav Res Ther. 1973;11:619–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(73)90119-8 This report describes habit reversal training for body-focused repetitive behaviors and tics in a systematic manualized style. This work is the basis of current behavior therapy for tics. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    • Azrin NH, Peterson AL. Treatment of Tourette syndrome by habit reversal: a waiting-list control group comparison. Behav Ther. 1990;21:305–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80333-8 This study also informed current iterations of behavior therapy for tics with its inclusion of relaxation training. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    •• Piacentini J, Woods DW, Scahill L, Wilhelm S, Peterson AL, Chang S, et al. Behavior therapy for children with Tourette disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303:1929–37.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.607 This is the largest randomized, controlled trial showing support for the efficacy of behavior therapy for Tourette’s disorder in youth. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    •• Wilhelm S, Peterson AL, Piacentini J, Woods DW, Deckersbach T, Sukhodolsky DG, et al. Randomized trial of behavior therapy for adults with Tourette Syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:795–803.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1528 This is the largest randomized, controlled trial supporting the efficacy of behavior therapy for Tourette’s disorder in adults. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ricketts EJ, Bauer CC. Habit reversal training. In: McGuire JF, Murphy TK, Piacentini J, Storch EA, editors. The clinician’s guide to treatment and management of youth with Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. London: Academic Press; 2018. p. 43–70.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Himle MB, Woods DW, Piacentini J, Walkup JT. Brief review of habit reversal training for Tourette syndrome. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:719–25.  https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738060210080101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Himle MB, Freitag M, Walther M, Franklin SA, Ely L, Woods DW. A randomized pilot trial comparing videoconference versus face-to-face delivery of behavior therapy for childhood tic disorders. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50:565–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.05.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ricketts EJ, Goetz AR, Capriotti MR, Bauer CC, Brei NG, Himle MB, et al. A randomized waitlist-controlled pilot trial of voice over Internet protocol-delivered behavior therapy for youth with chronic tic disorders. J Telemed Telecare. 2016;22:153–62.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X15593192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Conelea CA, Wellen BCM. Tic treatment goes tech: a review of TicHelper.com. Cogn Behav Pract. 2017;24:374–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.01.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kennedy TM, Morris AT, Walkup JT, Barash M, Gettings JM, Hankinson J, et al. Rapid-response behavioral triage for tics (RRBTT): a 2-week clinical case series. Clin Pract Pediatr Psychol. 2016;4:373–82.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cpp0000151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Blount TH, Raj JJ, Peterson AL. Intensive outpatient comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics: a clinical replication series. Cogn Behav Pract. 2018;25:156–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ricketts EJ, Gilbert DL, Zinner SH, Mink JW, Lipps TD, Wiegand GA, et al. Pilot testing behavior therapy for chronic tic disorders in neurology and developmental pediatrics clinics. J Child Neurol. 2016;31:444–50.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073815599257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hoogduin K, Verdellen C, Cath D. Exposure and response prevention in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome: four case studies. Clin Psychol Psychotherapy. 1997;4:125–35.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199706)4:2<125::AID-CPP125>3.0.CO;2-Z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Verdellen CW, Keijsers GP, Cath DC, Hoogduin CA. Exposure with response prevention versus habit reversal in Tourettes’s syndrome: a controlled study. Behav Res Ther. 2004;42:501–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00154-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    van de Griendt JM, Verdellen CW, van Dijk MK, Verbraak MJ. Behavioural treatment of tics: habit reversal and exposure with response prevention. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1172–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.10.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weisman H, Qureshi IA, Leckman JF, Scahill L, Bloch MH. Systematic review: pharmacological treatment of tic disorders: efficacy of antipsychotic and alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:1162–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.09.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Quezada J, Coffman KA. Current approaches and new developments in the pharmacological management of Tourette syndrome. CNS Drugs. 2018;32:33–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-017-0486-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Scahill L, Erenberg G, Berlin CM Jr, Budman C, Coffey BJ, Jankovic J, et al. Contemporary assessment and pharmacotherapy of Tourette syndrome. NeuroRx. 2006;3:192–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurx.2006.01.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Friedland S, Walkup JT. Meta-assurance: no tic exacerbation caused by stimulants. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54:706–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2015.06.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gadow KD, Sverd J, Sprafkin J, Nolan EE, Grossman S. Long-term methylphenidate therapy in children with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic multiple tic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:330–6.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.4.330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) Team. Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the pediatric OCD treatment study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:1969–76.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.16.1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ginsburg GS, Kingery JN, Drake KL, Grados MA. Predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47:868–78.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181799ebd.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hallett M, Albanese A, Dressler D, Segal KR, Simpson DM, Truong D, et al. Evidence-based review and assessment of botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders. Toxicon. 2013;67:94–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Whittington C, Pennant M, Kendall T, Glazebrook C, Trayner P, Groom M, et al. Practitioner review: treatments for Tourette syndrome in children and young people—a systematic review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016;57:988–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Deeb W, Rossi PJ, Porta M, Visser-Vandewalle V, Servello D, Silburn P, et al. The international deep brain stimulation registry and database for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: how does it work? Front Neurosci. 2016;10:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rossi PJ, Opri E, Shute JB, Molina R, Bowers D, Ward H, et al. Scheduled, intermittent stimulation of the thalamus reduces tics in Tourette syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;29:35–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2016.05.033.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mink JW, Walkup J, Frey KA, Como P, Cath D, DeLong MR, et al. Patient selection and assessment recommendations for deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1831–8.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.21039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schrock LE, Mink JW, Woods DW, Porta M, Servello D, Visser-Vandewalle V, et al. Tourette syndrome deep brain stimulation: a review and updated recommendations. Mov Disord. 2015;30:448–71.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.26094.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Tynan WD, Woods KE. Emerging issues: psychology’s place in the primary care pediatric medical home. Clin Pract Pediatr Psychol. 2013;1:380–5.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cpp0000042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vogel ME, Kirkpatrick HA, Collings AS, Cederna-Meko CL, Grey MJ. Integrated care: maturing the relationship between psychology and primary care. Prof Psychol Res Pr. 2012;43:271–80.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Asarnow JR, Rozenman M, Wiblin J, Zeltzer L. Integrated medical-behavioral care compared with usual primary care for child and adolescent behavioral health: a meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;69:929–37.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mina Yadegar
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Sisi Guo
    • 1
  • Emily J. Ricketts
    • 1
  • Samuel H. Zinner
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Boston Child Study CenterLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Behavioral Associates Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.University of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Seattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations