Experimental and numerical investigation of the abrasive waterjet machining of aluminum-7075-T6 for aerospace applications

Abstract

The machining of hard-to-cut materials with a high degree of precision and high surface quality is one of the most critical considerations when fabricating various state-of-the-art engineered components. In this investigation, a comprehensive three-dimensional model was developed and numerically simulated to predict kerf profiles and material removal rates while drilling the aluminum-7075-T6 aerospace alloy. Kerf profile and material removal prediction involved three stages: jet dynamic flow modeling, abrasive particle tracking, and erosion rate prediction . Experimental investigations were conducted to validate the developed model. The results indicate that the jet dynamic characteristics and flow of abrasive particles alter the kerf profiles, where the top kerf diameter increases with increasing jet pressure and standoff distance. The kerf depth and hole aspect ratio increase with jet pressure, but decrease with standoff distance and machining time. Cross-sectional profiles were characterized by progressive edge rounding and parabolic shapes. Defects can be minimized by utilizing high jet pressure and small standoff distance. The material removal rate increases with increasing jet pressure, abrasive particle size, and exposure time, but decreases with increasing standoff distance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23

References

  1. 1.

    Folkes J (2009) Waterjet—an innovative tool for manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 209(20): 6181–6189

  2. 2.

    Liu HT (2010) Waterjet technology for machining fine features pertaining to micromachining. J Manuf Process 12(1):8–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Liu PH (2015) Abrasive-waterjet machining of most materials from macro to micro scales. In: Proceedings of the TechConnect World Innovation Conference and Expo, Washington, DC, USA, 39–42

  4. 4.

    Shanmugam DK, Masood SH (2009) An investigation on kerf characteristics in abrasive waterjet cutting of layered composites. J Mater Process Technol 209(8):3887–3893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Arola D, Ramulu M (1997) Material removal in abrasive waterjet machining of metals a residual stress analysis. Wear 211(2):302–310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Boud F, Carpenter C, Folkes J et al (2010) Abrasive waterjet cutting of a titanium alloy: The influence of abrasive morphology and mechanical properties on workpiece grit embedment and cut quality. J Mater Process Technol 210(15):2197–2205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Billingham J, Miron CB, Axinte DA et al (2013) Mathematical modelling of abrasive waterjet footprints for arbitrarily moving jets: Part II—overlapped single and multiple straight paths. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 68(1):30–39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Anwar S, Axinte DA, Becker AA (2013) Finite element modelling of abrasive waterjet milled footprints. J Mater Process Technol 213(89):180–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kumar A, Singh H, Kumar V (2018) Study the parametric effect of abrasive water jet machining on surface roughness of Inconel 718 using RSM-BBD techniques. Mater Manuf Process 33(13):1483–1490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Haghbin AN, Khakpour A (2018) Measurement of abrasive particle velocity and size distribution in high pressure abrasive slurry and water micro-jets using a modified dual disc anemometer. J Mater Process Technol 263(76):164–175

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Liu H, Wang J, Kelson N et al (2004) A study of abrasive waterjet characteristics by CFD simulation. J Mater Process Technol 153/154(1/3):488–493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Prisco U, D’Onofrio MC (2008) Three-dimensional CFD simulation of two-phase flow inside the abrasive water jet cutting head. Int J Comput Methods Eng Sci Mech 9(5):300–319

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Long X, Ruan X, Liu Q et al (2017) Numerical investigation on the internal flow and the particle movement in the abrasive waterjet nozzle. Powder Technol 314:635–640

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Narayanan C, Balz R, Weiss DA et al (2013) Modelling of abrasive particle energy in water jet machining. J Mater Process Technol 213(12):2201–2210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Wang J (2007) Predictive depth of jet penetration models for abrasive waterjet cutting of alumina ceramics. Int J Mech Sci 49(3):306–316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nouraei H, Kowsari K, Samareh B et al (2016) Calibrated CFD erosion modeling of abrasive slurry jet micro-machining of channels in ductile materials. J Manuf Process 23(45):90–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Messa GV, Malavasi S (2016) The simulation of abrasive jet impingement tests in the simulation of abrasive jet impingement tests. Wear 370/371(7):59–72

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Haghbin N, Spelt JK, Papini M (2015) Abrasive waterjet micro-machining of channels in metals: Comparison between machining in air and submerged in water. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 88(25):108–117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lv Z, Hou R, Tian Y et al (2018) Investigation on flow field of ultrasonic-assisted abrasive waterjet using CFD with discrete phase model. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(1/4):963–972

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Wang J (2009) A new model for predicting the depth of cut in abrasive waterjet contouring of alumina ceramics. J Mater Process Technol 209(5):2314–2320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Momber AW (2004) Deformation and fracture of rocks due to high-speed liquid impingement. Int J Fract 130(3):683–704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    ANSYS Inc (US) (2018) ANSYS fluent theory guide, 15317

  23. 23.

    Alexander AJ, Morsi SA (1972) An investigation of particle trajectories in two-phase flow systems. J Fluid Mech 78(8):256–280

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Parsi M, Najmi K, Najafifard FS et al (2014) A comprehensive review of solid particle erosion modeling for oil and gas wells and pipelines applications. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 21:850–873

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Vieira RE, Mansouri A, Mclaury BS et al (2016) Experimental and computational study of erosion in elbows due to sand particles in air flow. Powder Technol 288(25):339–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Oka YI, Yoshida T (2005) Practical estimation of erosion damage caused by solid particle impact Part 2: mechanical properties of materials directly associated with erosion damage. Wear 259(4):102–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Desale GR, Gandhi BK, Jain SC (2009) Particle size effects on the slurry erosion of aluminium alloy (AA 6063). Wear 266(11/12):1066–1071

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kowsari K, Nouraei H, James DF et al (2014) Abrasive slurry jet micro-machining of holes in brittle and ductile materials. J Mater Process Technol 214(9):1909–1920

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Oka YI, Okamura K, Yoshida T (2005) Practical estimation of erosion damage caused by solid particle impact: Part 1: Effects of impact parameters on a predictive equation. Wear 259(1/6):95–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Huang C, Chiovelli S, Minev P et al (2008) A comprehensive phenomenological model for erosion of materials in jet flow. Powder Technol 187(3):273–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Messa GV, Malavasi S (2017) The effect of sub-models and parameterizations in the simulation of abrasive jet impingement tests. Wear 370/371(115):59–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Giurgiutiu V (2016) Structural health monitoring of aerospace composites. Academic Press, pp 33–52

  33. 33.

    Nyaboro JN, Ahmed MA, El-Hofy H et al (2020) Fluid-structure interaction modeling of the abrasive waterjet drilling of carbon fiber reinforced polymers. J Manuf Process 58:551–562

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Kang C, Liu H, Li X et al (2016) A numerical and experimental study of oblique impact of ultra-high pressure abrasive water jet. Adv Mech Eng 8(3):1–14

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Anirban G, Barron RM, Balachandar R (2010) Numerical simulation of high-speed turbulent water jets in air. J Hydraul Res 48(1):119–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Field JE, Lesser MB (1977) On the mechanics of high speed liquid jets. Proc R Soc London A Math Phys Sci 357(16):143–162

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Nouraei H, Kowsari K, Papini M et al (2016) Operating parameters to minimize feature size in abrasive slurry jet micro-machining. Precis Eng 44:109–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Hashish M, du Plessis MP (1979) Prediction equations relating high velocity jet cutting performance to stand off distance and multipasses. J Eng Ind 101(3):311. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3439512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Ulas C, Hascalik A (2008) A study on surface roughness in abrasive waterjet machining process using artificial neural networks and regression analysis method. J Mater Process Technol 202(1/3):574–582

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Kowsari K, Nouhi A, Hadavi V et al (2017) Prediction of the erosive footprint in the abrasive jet micro-machining of flat and curved glass. Tribol Int 106(3/6):101–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Li H, Lee A, Fan J et al (2014) On DEM-CFD study of the dynamic characteristics of high speed micro-abrasive air jet. Powder Technol 267(29):161–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in the scope of the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) and special thanks to Alexstone Co., Ltd. for allowing us to use their machining center for experiments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joseck Nyaboro.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nyaboro, J., Ahmed, M., El-Hofy, H. et al. Experimental and numerical investigation of the abrasive waterjet machining of aluminum-7075-T6 for aerospace applications. Adv. Manuf. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40436-020-00338-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Non-traditional machining
  • Abrasive waterjet machining
  • Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
  • Erosion modeling
  • Kerf characteristics