Quantitative analysis of dispersion, cooling and lubricating properties of graphene dispersed emulsifier oil

Abstract

All manufacturing sectors use cutting fluids. Need for sustainable manufacturing discourages the application of cutting fluid as flood and encourages their application in small quantity strictly at the cutting zone, i.e., minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). But, MQL application requires development of cutting fluids with augmented properties. Present work performs quantitative analysis of dispersion, cooling and lubricating properties of graphene dispersed emulsifier oil. In the present work, initially 0.1 wt% graphene dispersed emulsifier oil samples are prepared by using different surfactants, sonication times and graphene to surfactant ratios and optimal conditions are identified which showed maximum dispersion stability. Absorbance method is use to evaluate dispersion stability. Use of Triton X100 with graphene to surfactant ratio of 1.5 and sonication time of 60 s is found to be the optimum condition. Properties like density, kinematic viscosity and dynamic viscosity are evaluated and ratio of graphene to surfactant is decided for 0.3 wt% and 0.5 wt% graphene dispersed emulsifier oil. Thermal conductivity and tribological properties are evaluated to quantitatively analyze the cooling and lubricating properties of graphene dispersed emulsifier oil. Emulsifier oil with 0.1 wt%, 0.3 wt% and 0.5 wt% graphene with surfactant Triton X100 added in same ratio as graphene showed enhancement viscosity which is 1.6, 2.6 and 3.4 times the viscosity of base emulsifier oil and also showed good stability. The corresponding thermal conductivities are found to be 1.1, 2 and 1.5 times the thermal conductivity of base emulsifier oil and coefficient of friction is found to decrease by 0.6%, 2.9% and 5.8%, respectively. Good stability, enhanced viscosity, thermal conductivity and reduced coefficient of friction make them suitable for machining applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

References

  1. 1.

    https://www.meadmetals.com/blog/common-uses-for-stainless-steel

  2. 2.

    Leyens C, Peters M (eds) (2003) Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications. Wiley, London

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Reed RC (2008) The superalloys: fundamentals and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Youssef HA (2015) Machining of stainless steels and superalloys: traditional and nontraditional techniques. Wiley, London

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ahmed YS, Paiva JM, Arif AFM, Amorim FL, Torres RD, Veldhuis SC (2020) The effect of laser micro-scale textured tools on the tool-chip interface performance and surface integrity during austenitic stainless-steel turning. Appl Surf Sci 510:145455

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Manikandan N, Arulkirubakaran D, Palanisamy D, Raju R (2019) Influence of wire-EDM textured conventional tungsten carbide inserts in machining of aerospace materials (Ti–6Al–4V alloy). Mater Manuf Processes 34(1):103–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sivaiah P, Ajay Kumar GV, Singh MM, Kumar H (2020) Effect of novel hybrid texture tool on turning process performance in MQL machining of Inconel 718 superalloy. Mater Manuf Process 35(1):61–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Deshpande YV, Andhare AB, Padole PM (2018) Experimental results on the performance of cryogenic treatment of tool and minimum quantity lubrication for machinability improvement in the turning of Inconel 718. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 40(1):6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Saini A, Pabla BS, Dhami SS (2019) Improvement in performance of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide tools in face milling of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Mater Manuf Process 35:1–10

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Chaudhury MD, Subramanian A (2019). Metallurgical changes of cryogenically treated Coated Carbide (KC-9225) and its performance during wet machining of Austenitic Stainless Steel–310. In: IOP conference series: materials science and engineering, vol. 502, no. 1. IOP Publishing, p 012192

  11. 11.

    Ahmed YS, Paiva JM, Veldhuis SC (2019) Characterization and prediction of chip formation dynamics in machining austenitic stainless steel through supply of a high-pressure coolant. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 102(5–8):1671–1688

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Khanna N, Agrawal C, Gupta MK, Song Q (2020) Tool wear and hole quality evaluation in cryogenic drilling of Inconel 718 superalloy. Tribol Int 143:106084

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Dureja JS, Singh R, Singh T, Singh P, Dogra M, Bhatti MS (2015) Performance evaluation of coated carbide tool in machining of stainless steel (AISI 202) under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Int J Precis Eng Manuf Green Technol 2(2):123–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kamata Y, Obikawa T (2007) High speed MQL finish-turning of Inconel 718 with different coated tools. J Mater Process Technol 192:281–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sadeghi MH, Haddad MJ, Tawakoli T, Emami M (2009) Minimal quantity lubrication-MQL in grinding of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44(5–6):487–500

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Berk Z (2018) Food process engineering and technology. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Das SK, Choi SU, Yu W, Pradeep T (2007) Nanofluids: science and technology. Wiley, London

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Uysal A, Demiren F, Altan E (2015) Applying minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) method on milling of martensitic stainless steel by using nano MoS2 reinforced vegetable cutting fluid. Proced Soc Behav Sci 195:2742–2747

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sodavadia KP, Makwana AH (2014) Experimental investigation on the performance of coconut oil based nano fluid as lubricants during turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel. Int J Adv Mech Eng 4(1):55–60

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sahu NK, Andhare AB, Raju RA (2018) Evaluation of performance of nanofluid using multiwalled carbon nanotubes for machining of Ti–6AL–4V. Mach Sci Technol 22(3):476–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Setti D, Ghosh S, Paruchuri VR (2018) Influence of nanofluid application on wheel wear, coefficient of friction and redeposition phenomenon in surface grinding of Ti-6Al-4V. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 232(1):128–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Sinha MK, Madarkar R, Ghosh S, Rao PV (2017) Application of eco-friendly nanofluids during grinding of Inconel 718 through small quantity lubrication. J Clean Prod 141:1359–1375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Hegab H, Kishawy HA (2018) Machining of Inconel 718 using nano-fluid minimum quantity lubrication. In: 7th International conference on virtual machining process technology (VMPT)

  24. 24.

    Bai X, Li C, Dong L et al (2019) Experimental evaluation of the lubrication performances of different nanofluids for minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) in milling Ti–6Al–4V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101:2621–2632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-3100-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Amrita M, Srikant RR, Sitaramaraju AV, Prasad MMS, Krishna PV (2014) Preparation and characterization of properties of nanographite-based cutting fluid for machining operations. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J J Eng Tribol 228(3):243–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Pop E, Varshney V, Roy AK (2012) Thermal properties of graphene: fundamentals and applications. MRS Bull 37(12):1273–1281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Berman D, Erdemir A, Sumant AV (2014) Graphene: a new emerging lubricant. Mater Today 17(1):31–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Li M, Yu T, Yang L, Li H, Zhang R, Wang W (2019) Parameter optimization during minimum quantity lubrication milling of TC4 alloy with graphene-dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid. J Clean Prod 209:1508–1522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Li M, Yu T, Zhang R, Yang L, Ma Z, Li B, Zhao J (2020) Experimental evaluation of an eco-friendly grinding process combining minimum quantity lubrication and graphene-enhanced plant-oil-based cutting fluid. J Clean Prod 244:118747

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    De Oliveira D, Da Silva RB, Gelamo RV (2019) Influence of multilayer graphene platelet concentration dispersed in semi-synthetic oil on the grinding performance of Inconel 718 alloy under various machining conditions. Wear 426:1371–1383

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Li G, Yi S, Li N, Pan W, Wen C, Ding S (2019) Quantitative analysis of cooling and lubricating effects of graphene oxide nanofluids in machining titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. J Mater Process Technol 271:584–598

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Wang G, Li G, Huan Y, Hao C, Chen W (2020) Acrylic acid functionalized graphene oxide: high-efficient removal of cationic dyes from wastewater and exploration on adsorption mechanism. Chemosphere 261:127736

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Ibrahim MA, Saleh TA (2020) Partially aminated acrylic acid grafted activated carbon as inexpensive shale hydration inhibitor. Carbohydr Res 491:107960

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Naghizadeh A (2015) Comparison between activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes in the removal of cadmium (II) and chromium (VI) from water solutions. J Water Supply Res Technol AQUA 64(1):64–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Das A, Chakraborty B, Sood AK (2008) Raman spectroscopy of graphene on different substrates and influence of defects. Bull Mater Sci 31(3):579–584

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Sharif MZ, Azmi WH, Redhwan AAM, Zawawi NNM, Mamat R (2017) Improvement of nanofluid stability using 4-step UV–Vis spectral absorbency analysis. J Mech Eng SI 4(2):233–247

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    ASTM E2193-08 (2008) Standard test method for ultraviolet transmittance of monoethylene glycol (ultraviolet spectrophotometric method). ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  38. 38.

    ASTM E2865-12 (2018) Standard guide for measurement of electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential of nanosized biological materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  39. 39.

    ASTM D1298-99 (1999) Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products by hydrometer method. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  40. 40.

    https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/water-dynamic-kinematic-viscosity-d_596.html

  41. 41.

    ASTM Standard D7984-16 (2016) Standard test method for measurement of thermal effusivity of fabrics using a modified transient plane source (MTPS) instrument. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  42. 42.

    ASTM D4172-18 (2018) Standard test method for wear preventive characteristics of lubricating fluid (four-ball method). ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  43. 43.

    Amrita M, Kamesh B, Srikant RR, Prithiviraajan RN, Reddy KS (2019) Thermal enhancement of graphene dispersed emulsifier cutting fluid with different surfactants. Mater Res Express 6(12):125030

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by Science and Engineering Research Board F NO. ECR/2017/001172 as a research project. The authors are grateful to the Science and Engineering Research Board for providing financial support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Amrita.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Technical Editor: Dr. Izabel Fernanda Machado.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Amrita, M., Srikant, R.R. Quantitative analysis of dispersion, cooling and lubricating properties of graphene dispersed emulsifier oil. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 43, 95 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-021-02820-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Graphene
  • Emulsifier oil
  • Dispersion
  • Cooling
  • Lubrication
  • Cutting fluid