Evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using split injection


Society at large today is deeply concerned with environmental pollution which is primarily contributed by vehicular pollution. Diesel engines are mainly responsible for creating much of the air pollution. A large number of analyses have revealed numerous fuel alternatives with a view to mitigate emission, specially NOx and soot, and improve engine performance. This paper offers to explore the adequate balance between NOx and soot along with performance. The combined effect of split injection and piston bowl geometry on engine performance and emission has been investigated numerically. Numerical simulations were performed using three-dimensional AVL-FIRE commercial code on a single-cylinder DI Diesel engine taking standard diesel as fuel. Six different geometrical configurations of piston bowl along with three injection ratios were considered. The piston bowl geometry is modified by varying the depth and bowl radius keeping bowl volume, compression ratio, engine speed and mass injected invariant. It was noted that mass of fuel injected as pilot injection got mixed with the air, and the mixture became ready for burning prior to the occurrence of the main injection. In addition to this, the role of increasing the pilot injection mass up to 15% along with variation in piston bowl geometry on the in-cylinder mean pressure, temperature, rate of heat release and emission parameter is explored. Numerical data, computed for single injection, were validated against experimental results available in the literature. Further, an optimization study was undertaken for selected eighteen cases and results were evaluated for different injection ratios and piston geometries. Piston bowl geometry having 100 mm diameter and 2.48 mm depth and mass of fuel injected 5% in pilot and 95% in main injection (Case D4R1) was found to have optimum NOx and soot emission. The optimum NOx and soot were found to reduce by 10% and 16% by volume, respectively, as compared to those with single injection.

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This research was supported by the mechanical engineering department at Maulna Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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Correspondence to Ankit Kesharwani.

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Kesharwani, A., Gupta, R. Evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using split injection. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 331 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-020-02421-3

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  • Split injection
  • Piston bowl design
  • Swirl ratio