Friction push plug welding in airframe structures using Ti-6Al-4V plug

  • N. Rajesh Jesudoss Hynes
  • P. Shenbaga Velu
  • Abeyram M. Nithin
Technical Paper


Friction push plug welding, a recent variation of friction welding process has tremendous applications in joining and repairing operations in aerospace and automotive engineering. The main objective of the present work demonstrates joining feasibility of high performance Ti-6Al-4V to low density AA2024 employed in passenger seat track, vertical stabilizers and wing spars of aircraft structures of aerospace applications. Mechanical testing is carried out to analyse the joint integrity and strength of Ti-6Al-4V/AA2024 joints. The microstructural aspects are investigated to study the bonding mechanism to obtain defect-free welds. SEM micrograph reveals the formation of different zones with significant reduction in grain size. EDX analysis confirms the formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound which is less brittle. Appreciable impact strength of about 286.354 kJ/m2 indicates friction push plug welding as a promising candidate for joining of Ti-6Al-4V and AA2024 in airframe structures.


Friction push plug welding Ti-6Al-4V alloy AA2024 alloy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Lange M, Dr. Schwenker S (2012) Friction plug welding of 2024-T3 aluminium. Mater Des 33:340–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hattingh DG, Bulbring DLH, Els-Botes A, James MN (2011) Process parameter influence on performance of friction taper stud welds in AISI 4140 steel. Mater Des 32:3421–3430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou L, Liu D (2012) Nakata new technique of self-refilling friction stir welding to repair keyhole. J South Afr Inst Mech Eng 28:37–45Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hattingh DG, Cv Zyl (2007) Temperature distribution for a friction taper stud weld in thick wall 10CrMo910 steel. Arch Civil Mech Eng 7:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hynes NRJ, Nagaraj P, Sujana JAJ (2014) Ultrasonic evaluation of friction stud welded AA 6063/AISI 1030 steel joints. Mater Des 62:118–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hattingh DG, Steuwer A, James MN, Wedderburn IN (2010) Residual stresses in overlapping friction taper stud welds. Mater Sci Forum 652:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Metz DF, Barkey ME (2012) Fatigue behaviour of friction plug welds in 2195 Al–Li alloy. Int J Fatigue 43:178–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ambroziak A, Gul B (2009) Investigations of underwater FHPP for welding steel overlap joints. Mater Des 30:581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wolcott PJ, Sridharan N, Babu SS, Miriyev A, Frage N, Dapino MJ (2015) Characterisation of Al–Ti dissimilar material joints fabricated using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. Sci Technol Weld Join 1–10Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu Peng, Shi Qingyu, Wang Wei, Wang Xin, Zhang Zenglei (2008) Microstructure and XRD analysis of FSW joints for copper T2/aluminium 5A06 dissimilar materials. Mater Lett 62:4106–4108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen Yuhua, Liu Changhua, Liu Geping (2011) Study on the joining of titanium and aluminium dissimilar alloys by friction stir welding. Open Mater Sci J 5:256–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chludzinski M, Paes MP, Bastian FL, Strohaecker TR (2012) Fracture toughness of friction hydro pillar processing welding in C-Mn steel. Mater Des 33:340–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ozdemir N (2005) Investigation of the mechanical properties of friction-welded joints between AISI 304L and AISI 4340 steel as a function rotational speed. Mater Lett 59:2504–2509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Satyanarayana VV, Madhusudhan Reddy G, Mohandas T (2005) Dissimilar metal friction welding of austenitic–ferritic stainless steels. J Mater Process Technol 160:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meyer A (2003) Friction hydro pillar processing: bonding mechanism and properties, GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht, Bibliothek, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cui L, Yang X, Wang D, Hou X, Cao J, Xu W (2014) Friction taper plug welding for S355 steel in underwater wet conditions: welding performance, microstructures and mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 611:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hartley PJ (2000) “Friction Plug Weld Repair for the Space Shuttle External Tank,” NASA Document ID 20000093962, Johnson Space Centre, Marshall Space Flight CentreGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen PS, Kuruville AK, Malone TW, Stanton WP (1998) The Effects of Artificial Aging on the Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of Al–Cu–Li Alloy 2195. J Mater Eng Perform 7(5):682–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li ZX, Arbegast WJ, Hartley PJ, Meletis EI (1998) Microstructural characterization and stress corrosion evaluation of friction stir welded Al 2195 and Al 2219 Alloys. In: Vitek JM, David SA, Johnson JA, Smartt HB, DebRoy T (Eds) In: Trends in Welding Research: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference Pine Mountain Georgia, June 1–5, 1998, ASM, ClevelandGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen DL, Chaturvedi MC (2001) Effects of welding and weld heat-affected zone simulation on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of a 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Metall Mater Trans A 32:2729–2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bo Du, Sun Zhuanping, Yang Xinqui, Cui Lei, Song Jianling, Zhang Zhongping (2016) Characteristics of friction plug welding of 10 mm thick AA2129-T87 sheet: weld formation, microstructure and mechanical property. Mater Sci Eng A 654:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perrett JC, Sketchkely PD (2007) Hole repair in steel plate using friction taper plug welding initial trails in air and underwater. TWI Ltd, 15015Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Paventhan R, Lakshminarayanan PR, Balasubramanian V (2011) Fatigue behavior of friction welded medium carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel dissimilar joints. Mater Des 32:1888–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yin Yayun, Yang Xinqi, Cui Lei, Wang Feixiang, Li Shengli (2015) Material flow influence on the weld formation and mechanical performance in underwater friction taper plug welds for pipeline steel. Mater Des 88:990–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aonuma Masayuki, Nakata Kazuhiro (2011) Dissimilar metal joining of 2024 and 7075 aluminium alloys to titanium alloys by friction stir welding. Mater Trans 52(5):948–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hynes NRJ, Nagaraj P, Sujana JAJ (2014) Investigation on joining of aluminum and mild steel by friction stud welding. Mater Manuf Process 27:1409–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang CQ, Robson JD, Prangnell PB (2016) Dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of aerospace aluminum alloy AA2139 to titanium alloy TiAl6V4. J Mat Process Technol 231:382–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMepco Schlenk Engineering CollegeSivakasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNIT WarangalWarangalIndia

Personalised recommendations