Purpose of Review
Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) often have concomitant medical conditions requiring hospitalization. This review describes the treatment of patients with OUD in acute care hospitals. Topics addressed include screening hospitalized patients for OUD, hospital initiation of medications for OUD (MOUD), Addiction Medicine Consult Services (AMCS), managing infectious complications of intravenous opioid use, and clinical innovations.
Management of opioid withdrawal and initiation of MOUD in hospitalized patients improves engagement in post-discharge addiction treatment. Implementation of an AMCS improves patient and provider outcomes. Care models that promote seamless transitions from the inpatient to outpatient setting for patients with OUD can improve patient outcomes and reduce health care utilization.
Comprehensive addiction care for hospitalized patients with OUD improves patient, provider, and health care outcomes. Future studies should define the essential components of this integrated care and establish a new standard for the hospital care of patients with OUD.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
Rudd RA, Aleshire N, Zibbell JE, Gladden RM. Increases in drug and opioid overdose deaths--United States, 2000–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;64(50–51):1378–82. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6450a3.
Ronan MV, Herzig SJ. Hospitalizations related to opioid abuse/dependence and associated serious infections increased sharply, 2002-12. Health affairs (Project Hope). 2016;35(5):832–7. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1424.
Hsu DJ, McCarthy EP, Stevens JP, Mukamal KJ. Hospitalizations, costs and outcomes associated with heroin and prescription opioid overdoses in the United States 2001–12. Addiction. 2017;112(9):1558–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13795.
Hall R, Shaughnessy M, Boll G, Warner K, Boucher HW, Bannuru RR, et al. Drug-use and post-operative mortality following valve surgery for infective endocarditis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1064.
Gray ME, Rogawski McQuade ET, Scheld WM, Dillingham RA. Rising rates of injection drug use associated infective endocarditis in Virginia with missed opportunities for addiction treatment referral: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):532. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3408-y.
Kuehn B. Trends in blood infection rates News From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2019;321(16):1559. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.3818.
Weiss AJ, Barrett ML, Steiner CA, Bailey MK, O’Malley L. Opioid-related inpatient stays and emergency department visits by state, 2009–2014. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2016 Contract No.: #219.
Wakeman SE, Pham-Kanter G, Donelan K. Attitudes, practices, and preparedness to care for patients with substance use disorder: results from a survey of general internists. Subst Abus. 2016;37(4):635–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2016.1187240.
Merrill JO, Rhodes LA, Deyo RA, Marlatt GA, Bradley KA. Mutual mistrust in the medical care of drug users: the keys to the “narc” cabinet. J Gen Intern Med. 17(5):327–33.
Jicha C, Saxon D, Lofwall MR, Fanucchi LC. Substance use disorder assessment, diagnosis, and management for patients hospitalized with severe infections due to injection drug use. J Addict Med. 2019;13(1):69–74. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000454.
Rosenthal ES, Karchmer AW, Theisen-Toupal J, Castillo RA, Rowley CF. Suboptimal addiction interventions for patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis. Am J Med. 2016;129(5):481–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.09.024.
Naeger S, Mutter R, Ali MM, Mark T, Hughey L. Post-discharge treatment engagement among patients with an opioid-use disorder. J Subst Abus Treat. 2016;69:64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.07.004.
Braithwaite V, Nolan S. Hospital-based addiction medicine healthcare providers: high demand, short supply. J Addict Med. 2019:1. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000488.
Donroe JH, Holt SR, Tetrault JM. Caring for patients with opioid use disorder in the hospital. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne. 2016;188(17–18):1232–9. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.160290.
Weinstein ZM, Wakeman SE, Nolan S. Inpatient addiction consult service: expertise for hospitalized patients with complex addiction problems. Med Clin North Am. 2018;102(4):587–601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2018.03.001.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.
•• Liebschutz JM, Crooks D, Herman D, Anderson B, Tsui J, Meshesha LZ, et al. Buprenorphine treatment for hospitalized, opioid-dependent patients: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(8):1369–76. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.2556The first RCT to show improved patient outcomes for hospitalized patients started on MOUD in the hospital.
Lee CS, Liebschutz JM, Anderson BJ, Stein MD. Hospitalized opioid-dependent patients: exploring predictors of buprenorphine treatment entry and retention after discharge. Am J Addict. 2017;26(7):667–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12533.
Cushman PA, Liebschutz JM, Anderson BJ, Moreau MR, Stein MD. Buprenorphine initiation and linkage to outpatient buprenorphine do not reduce frequency of injection opiate use following hospitalization. J Subst Abus Treat. 2016;68:68–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.06.003.
Suzuki J, DeVido J, Kalra I, Mittal L, Shah S, Zinser J, et al. Initiating buprenorphine treatment for hospitalized patients with opioid dependence: a case series. Am J Addict. 24(1):10–4.
Suzuki J. Medication-assisted treatment for hospitalized patients with intravenous-drug-use related infective endocarditis. Am J Addict. 25(3):191–4.
Moreno JL, Wakeman SE, Duprey MS, Roberts RJ, Jacobson JS, Devlin JW. Predictors for 30-day and 90-day hospital readmission among patients with opioid use disorder. J Addict Med 2019. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/adm.0000000000000499.
•• Trowbridge P, Weinstein ZM, Kerensky T, Roy P, Regan D, Samet JH, et al. Addiction consultation services - linking hospitalized patients to outpatient addiction treatment. J Subst Abus Treat. 2017;79:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2017.05.007One of the first studies to describe the implementation and scope of the AMCS and to demonstrate successful linkage to outpatient addiction treatment for patient seen by the AMCS.
• Wakeman SE, Metlay JP, Chang Y, Herman GE, Rigotti NA. Inpatient addiction consultation for hospitalized patients increases post-discharge abstinence and reduces addiction severity. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32(8):909–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4077-zThis study highlights the clinical impact of the AMCS including reduction in addiction severity and 30-day post-discharge hospital utilization.
•• Marks LR, Munigala S, Warren DK, Liang SY, Schwarz ES, Durkin MJ. Addiction medicine consultations reduce readmission rates for patients with serious infections from opioid use disorder. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;68(11):1935–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy924This study demonstrated improved outcomes in treatment for patients with OUD and serious bacterial infections resulting from management by the AMCS.
• Reeve R, Arora S, Butler K, Viney R, Burns L, Goodall S, et al. Evaluating the impact of hospital based drug and alcohol consultation liaison services. J Subst Abus Treat. 2016;68:36–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.05.008One of the few studies to illustrate the economic benefits of an AMCS.
Nordeck CD, Welsh C, Schwartz RP, Mitchell SG, Cohen A, O’Grady KE, et al. Rehospitalization and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment entry among patients seen by a hospital SUD consultation-liaison service. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;186:23–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.12.043.
• Wakeman SE, Kanter GP, Donelan K. Institutional substance use disorder intervention improves general internist preparedness, attitudes, and clinical practice. J Addict Med. 2017;11(4):308–14. https://doi.org/10.1097/adm.0000000000000314This study looks at the impact of the ACMS on hospital providers and shows that the AMCS can positively influence provider perceptions of people with OUD and improve the care they provide.
Rodger L, Glockler-Lauf SD, Shojaei E, Sherazi A, Hallam B, Koivu S, et al. Clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in first-episode infective endocarditis among persons who inject drugs. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(7):e185220. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5220.
Fanucchi LC, Lofwall MR, Nuzzo PA, Walsh SL. In-hospital illicit drug use, substance use disorders, and acceptance of residential treatment in a prospective pilot needs assessment of hospitalized adults with severe infections from injecting drugs. J Subst Abus Treat. 2018;92:64–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.06.011.
Rolfe RJ Jr, Mathews RE, Rodriguez JM, Paddock CS, Lane PS, Taylor BB, et al. Implementation of a standardized protocol for hospitalized patients who inject drugs and require long-term antibiotics reduces length of stay without increasing 30-day readmissions. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(Suppl 1):S340–S1. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx163.811.
Eaton EF, Mathews RE, Lane PS, Paddock CS, Rodriguez JM, Taylor BB, et al. A 9-point risk assessment for patients who inject drugs and require intravenous antibiotics: focusing inpatient resources on patients at greatest risk of ongoing drug use. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;68(6):1041–3. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy722.
Englander H, Wilson T, Collins D, Phoutrides E, Weimer M, Korthuis PT, et al. Lessons learned from the implementation of a medically enhanced residential treatment (MERT) model integrating intravenous antibiotics and residential addiction treatment. Subst Abus. 2018;39(2):225–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2018.1452326.
• Beieler AM, Dellit TH, Chan JD, Dhanireddy S, Enzian LK, Stone TJ, et al. Successful implementation of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy at a medical respite facility for homeless patients. J Hosp Med. 2016;11(8):531–5. https://doi.org/10.1002/jhm.2597Results indicate reduction in medical cost and improved rates of completion of outpatient parenteral antibiotic for individuals treated for bacterial infection when coupled with treatment for OUD.
Jafari S, Joe R, Elliot D, Nagji A, Hayden S, Marsh DC. A community care model of intravenous antibiotic therapy for injection drug users with deep tissue infection for “Reduce Leaving Against Medical Advice”. Int J Ment Heal Addict. 2015;13:49–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-014-9511-4.
Fanucchi LC, Walsh SL, Nuzzo PA, Thornton AC, Howe L, Lofwall MR. Are prolonged hospital stays needed for opioid use disorder and injection-related infections? 2018.
McNeely J, Cleland CM, Strauss SM, Palamar JJ, Rotrosen J, Saitz R. Validation of self-administered single-item screening questions (SISQs) for unhealthy alcohol and drug use in primary care patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(12):1757–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-015-3391-6.
American Psychiatric Association. Substance use disorder. 5th ed. Washington, DC: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; 2013.
Saitz R, Palfai TP, Cheng DM, Alford DP, Bernstein JA, Lloyd-Travaglini CA, et al. Screening and brief intervention for drug use in primary care: the ASPIRE randomized clinical trial. Jama. 2014;312(5):502–13. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.7862.
Bogenschutz MP, Donovan DM, Mandler RN, Perl HI, Forcehimes AA, Crandall C, et al. Brief intervention for patients with problematic drug use presenting in emergency departments: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(11):1736–45. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4052.
D’Onofrio G, Chawarski MC, O’Connor PG, Pantalon MV, Busch SH, Owens PH, et al. Emergency department-initiated buprenorphine for opioid dependence with continuation in primary care: outcomes during and after intervention. J Gen Intern Med. 32(6):660–6.
Noska A, Mohan A, Wakeman S, Rich J, Boutwell A. Managing opioid use disorder during and after acute hospitalization: a case-based review clarifying methadone regulation for acute care settings. J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil. 2015;4(2):1000138. https://doi.org/10.4172/2324-9005.1000138.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Office of Diversion Control, Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations 1306.07. Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1306/1306_07.htm
Larochelle MR, Bernson D, Land T, Stopka TJ, Wang N, Xuan Z, et al. Medication for opioid use disorder after nonfatal opioid overdose and association with mortality: a cohort study mortality and medication for opioid use disorder after overdose. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(3):137–45. https://doi.org/10.7326/m17-3107.
Shanahan CW, Beers D, Alford DP, Brigandi E, Samet JH. A transitional opioid program to engage hospitalized drug users. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(8):803–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1311-3.
Owens PL, Fingar KR, McDermott KW, Muhuri PK, KC H. Inpatient stays involving mental and substance use disorders, 2016. HCUP Statistical Brief #249. 2019.
Englander H, Collins D, Perry SP, Rabinowitz M, Phoutrides E, Nicolaidis C. “We’ve Learned It’s a Medical Illness, Not a Moral Choice”: qualitative study of the effects of a multicomponent addiction intervention on hospital providers’ attitudes and experiences. J Hosp Med. 2018;13(11):752–8. https://doi.org/10.12788/jhm.2993.
Englander H, Weimer M, Solotaroff R, Nicolaidis C, Chan B, Velez C, et al. Planning and Designing the Improving Addiction Care Team (IMPACT) for hospitalized adults with substance use disorder. J Hosp Med. 2017;12(5):339–42. https://doi.org/10.12788/jhm.2736.
Galanter M, Karsu TB, Wilder JF. Alcohol and drug abuse consultation in the general hospital: a systems approach. Am J Psychiatry. 1976;133(8):930–4. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.133.8.930.
Lewis DC, Gordon AJ. Alcoholism and the general hospital: the Roger Williams intervention program. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1983;59(2):181–97.
Priest KC, McCarty D. Role of the hospital in the 21st century opioid overdose epidemic: the Addiction Medicine Consult Service. J Addict Med. 2019;13(2):104–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000496.
McNeely J, Troxel AB, Kunins HV, Shelley D, Lee JD, Walley A, et al. Study protocol for a pragmatic trial of the Consult for Addiction Treatment and Care in Hospitals (CATCH) model for engaging patients in opioid use disorder treatment. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2019;14(1):5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-019-0135-7.
• Englander H, Mahoney S, Brandt K, Brown J, Dorfman C, Nydahl A, et al. Tools to support hospital-based addiction care: core components, values, and activities of the improving addiction care team. J Addict Med. 2019;13(2):85–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000487Practical toolkit for hospital providers to use for AMCS implementation.
Marcovitz D, Nisavic M, Bearnot B. Staffing an addiction consult service: psychiatrists, internists, or both? Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2019;57:41–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2019.01.005.
Velez CM, Nicolaidis C, Korthuis PT, Englander H. “It’s been an Experience, a Life Learning Experience”: a qualitative study of hospitalized patients with substance use disorders. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32(3):296–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-016-3919-4.
Gordon RJ, Lowy FD. Bacterial infections in drug users. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(18):1945–54. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra042823.
Leahey PA, LaSalvia MT, Rosenthal ES, Karchmer AW, Rowley CF. High morbidity and mortality among patients with sentinel admission for injection drug use-related infective endocarditis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;6(4):ofz089. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz089.
Wallen TJ, Szeto W, Williams M, Atluri P, Arnaoutakis G, Fults M, et al. Tricuspid valve endocarditis in the era of the opioid epidemic. J Card Surg. 33(5):260–4.
Wurcel AG, Anderson JE, Chui KK, Skinner S, Knox TA, Snydman DR, et al. Increasing infectious endocarditis admissions among young people who inject drugs. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016;3(3):ofw157. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofw157.
Mylonakis E, Calderwood SB. Infective endocarditis in adults. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(18):1318–30. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra010082.
Fleischauer AT, Ruhl L, Rhea S, Barnes E. Hospitalizations for endocarditis and associated health care costs among persons with diagnosed drug dependence - North Carolina, 2010–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(22):569–73. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6622a1.
Nguemeni Tiako MJ, Mori M, Bin Mahmood SU, Shioda K, Mangi A, Yun J, et al. Recidivism is the leading cause of death among intravenous drug users who underwent cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019;31(1):40–5. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2018.07.016.
Pettersson GB, Coselli JS, Pettersson GB, Coselli JS, Hussain ST, Griffin B, et al. 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS) consensus guidelines: surgical treatment of infective endocarditis: executive summary. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;153(6):1241–58.e29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.09.093.
Bearnot B, Mitton JA, Hayden M, Park ER. Experiences of care among individuals with opioid use disorder-associated endocarditis and their healthcare providers: results from a qualitative study. J Subst Abus Treat. 2019;102:16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2019.04.008.
Hussain ST, Gordon SM, Streem DW, Blackstone EH, Pettersson GB. Contract with the patient with injection drug use and infective endocarditis: surgeons perspective. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;154(6):2002–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.08.004.
National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine. Medications for opioid use disorder save lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2019.
Jewell C, Weaver M, Sgroi C, Anderson K, Sayeed Z. Residential addiction treatment for injection drug users requiring intravenous antibiotics: a cost-reduction strategy. J Addict Med. 2013;7(4):271–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0b013e318294b1eb.
Aszalos R, McDuff DR, Weintraub E, Montoya I, Schwartz R. Engaging hospitalized heroin-dependent patients into substance abuse treatment. J Subst Abus Treat. 1999;17(1–2):149–58.
White SR, Bird SM, Merrall EL, Hutchinson SJ. Drugs-related death soon after hospital-discharge among drug treatment clients in Scotland: record linkage, validation, and investigation of risk-factors. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0141073. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141073.
McNeil R, Kerr T, Pauly B, Wood E, Small W. Advancing patient-centered care for structurally vulnerable drug-using populations: a qualitative study of the perspectives of people who use drugs regarding the potential integration of harm reduction interventions into hospitals. Addiction. 2016;111(4):685–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13214.
Walley AY, Xuan Z, Hackman HH, Quinn E, Doe-Simkins M, Sorensen-Alawad A, et al. Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: interrupted time series analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2013;346:f174. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f174.
Coffin PO, Sullivan SD. Cost-effectiveness of distributing naloxone to heroin users for lay overdose reversal. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(1):1–9. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-158-1-201301010-00003.
Thakarar K, Weinstein ZM, Walley AY. Optimising health and safety of people who inject drugs during transition from acute to outpatient care: narrative review with clinical checklist. Postgrad Med J. 2016;92(1088):356–63. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133720.
Sharma M, Lamba W, Cauderella A, Guimond TH, Bayoumi AM. Harm reduction in hospitals. Harm Reduct J. 2017;14(1):32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-017-0163-0.
Azar P, Nikoo M, Miles I. Methadone to buprenorphine/naloxone induction without withdrawal utilizing transdermal fentanyl bridge in an inpatient setting—Azar method. Am J Addict. 2018;27(8):601–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12809.
Hämmig R, Kemter A, Strasser J, von Bardeleben U, Gugger B, Walter M, et al. Use of microdoses for induction of buprenorphine treatment with overlapping full opioid agonist use: the Bernese method. Subst Abus Rehabil. 2016;7:99–105. https://doi.org/10.2147/SAR.S109919.
Raheemullah A, Lembke A. Initiating opioid agonist treatment for opioid use disorder in the inpatient setting: a teachable moment. JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179:427. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6749.
Kornfeld H, Reetz H. Transdermal buprenorphine, opioid rotation to sublingual buprenorphine, and the avoidance of precipitated withdrawal: a review of the literature and demonstration in three chronic pain patients treated with Butrans. Am J Ther. 2013;22:199–205. https://doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e31828bfb6e.
Sen S, Arulkumar S, Cornett EM, Gayle JA, Flower RR, Fox CJ, et al. New pain management options for the surgical patient on methadone and buprenorphine. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20(3):16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-016-0549-9.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Agency. Clinical guidelines for the use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 40. Rockville, MD2004.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Agency. Medications for opioid use disorder, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 63. Rockville, MD2004.
Lembke A, Ottestad E, Schmiesing C. Patients maintained on buprenorphine for opioid use disorder should continue buprenorphine through the perioperative period. Pain Med (Malden, Mass). 2019;20(3):425–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pny019.
Greenwald MK, Johanson CE, Moody DE, Woods JH, Kilbourn MR, Koeppe RA, et al. Effects of buprenorphine maintenance dose on mu-opioid receptor availability, plasma concentrations, and antagonist blockade in heroin-dependent volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28(11):2000–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300251.
The authors thank Melissa Furano, MS, MLS.
Conflict of Interest
Melissa B. Weimer reports one-time personal fees from Alkermes and Indivior, outside the submitted work.
Kenneth Morford has no conflicts of interest to declare.
Joseph Donroe has no conflicts of interest to declare.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Opioids
About this article
Cite this article
Weimer, M., Morford, K. & Donroe, J. Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder in the Acute Hospital Setting: a Critical Review of the Literature (2014–2019). Curr Addict Rep 6, 339–354 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-019-00267-x
- Substance-related disorders