Sleepiness, occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions in children attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
This was to compare sleepiness, occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and healthy children (control group).
15 children with ADHD (10 boys, 5 girls, mean age 10.98 years) and 36 healthy age matched children (21 boys, 15 girls, mean age 10.60 years) were included. Intra-oral three-dimensional scans of the teeth and palate were performed to evaluate the occlusion, dental arch and palatal dimensions. Sleepiness was evaluated from the questionnaires. The differences between the two groups were analysed by Fisher’s exact test and general linear models adjusted for age and gender.
The ADHD children had a significantly narrower dental arch at the gingival level of the canines (p < 0.05) and a tendency to increased prevalence of posterior cross-bite compared to the controls (13.3 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.086). The ADHD children snored significantly more (p < 0.05) and slept restlessly significantly more often (p < 0.0005) compared to the controls. The ADHD children had a tendency to sleep fewer hours during the night (p = 0.066) and felt inadequately rested in the morning (p = 0.051) compared to the controls.
The results indicate that sleepiness and palatal width, especially the more anterior skeletal part of the palate, may be affected in children with ADHD. The results may prove valuable in the diagnosis and treatment planning of children with ADHD. Further studies are needed to investigate sleep and dental relations in children with ADHD.
KeywordsAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder Craniofacial abnormalities Sleepiness Child
We extend our sincere gratitude to the families and children who participated in the study and to the persons who have made the recruitment of the ADHD and control children possible: Dorthe Barsøe, head of Furesø ADHD- and autismecenter, Syvstjernen, Bente Velling Johansen, head of ADHD Borupgårdskolen, Helsingør, Ruth Jacobsen, head of the community dental service of Copenhagen, and Stine Mia Ørstrup, head of the community dental clinic at Panum. Scanorto A/S is thanked for providing free access to the intraoral scanner and to the OnyxCeph software. Thank you to M.Sc. Ib Jarle Christensen, Hvidovre Hospital, for statistical assistance.
Scanorto A/S provided free access to the intraoral scanner and Image Instruments provided free access to the OnyxCeph software.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Scientific-Ethical Committee of Copenhagen (H-1-2014-130) and the Danish data protection agency (j.nr. 2015-57-0121).
Oral and written informed consent was given by the children’s parents/guardian.
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