Funding of nuclear medicine research and association with citation impact



There has been no recent investigation on nuclear medicine research funding. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of funded nuclear medicine research and whether funding is associated with citation impact.


Original articles published in three major nuclear medicine journals were assessed for funding.


337 (56.2%) of 600 articles declared funding, which included federal sponsoring (47.6%), non-profit foundations (22.5%), intramural institutional foundations (16.0%), and private industry (13.9%). In linear regression analysis (adjusted for journal, continent of origin, mentioning of study findings in the article title, number of authors, open access publishing, and time since online publication), funding was significantly associated with citation impact (beta coefficient = 5.111, 95% CI, 1.005–9.217, P = 0.015).


More than half of research in major nuclear medicine journals declared funding. The far majority were supported federally, followed by non-profit foundations, intramural institutional foundations, and private industry. Funding was associated with higher citation impact.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. 1. Accessed 8 Jan 2021

  2. 2.

    National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on State of the Science of Nuclear Medicine (2007) Advancing nuclear medicine through innovation. National Academies Press (US), Washington (DC)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chetlen AL, Degnan AJ, Guelfguat M, Griffith B, Itri J, Matta H et al (2018) Radiology research funding: current state and future opportunities. Acad Radiol 25:26–39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    U.S. National Library of Medicine. Funding Support (Grant) Information in MEDLINE/PubMed. (Accessed 25 Sept 2020)

  5. 5.

    Yoon DY, Yun EJ, Ku YJ, Baek S, Lim KJ, Seo YL et al (2013) Citation classics in radiology journals: the 100 top-cited articles, 1945–2012. AJR Am J Roentgenol 201:471–481

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Lindgren L (2011) If Robert Merton said it, it must be true: a citation analysis in the field of performance measurement. Evaluation 17:7–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hirsch JE (2005) An index to quantify an individual’s scientific research output. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16569–16572

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Garfield E (2006) The history and meaning of the journal impact factor. JAMA 4(295):90–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Aragón AM (2013) A measure for the impact of research. Sci Rep 3:1649

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Fazel S, Wolf A (2017) What is the impact of a research publication? Evid Based Ment Health 20:33–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    McAfee JG, Kopecky RT, Frymoyer PA (1990) Nuclear medicine comes of age: its present and future roles in diagnosis. Radiology 174:609–620

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    McEwan AJ (2007) Funding nuclear medicine research. J Nucl Med 48:23N

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    No authors listed (2007) NAS study supports enhanced funding for nuclear medicine research. J Nucl Med 48:14N-22N

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Journal of Nuclear Medicine. (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  15. 15.

    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. (Accessed 25 Sept 2020.

  16. 16.

    Clinical Nuclear Medicine. (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  17. 17.

    Journal Citation Reports (InCites). (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  18. 18.

    Clarivate analytics’s web of science. Available at: (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  19. 19.

    Glickman ME, Rao SR, Schultz MR (2014) False discovery rate control is a recommended alternative to Bonferroni-type adjustments in health studies. J Clin Epidemiol 67:850–857

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Soper DS. A-priori Sample Size Calculator for Multiple Regression. (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  21. 21.

    Alkhawtani RHM, Kwee TC, Kwee RM (2020) Funding of radiology research: frequency and association with citation rate. AJR Am J Roentgenol 215:1286–1289

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    National Institutes of Health (NIH). (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  23. 23.

    NIH Public Access Policy. (Accessed 25 Sept 2020).

  24. 24.

    Patience GS, Patience CA, Blais B, Bertrand F (2017) Citation analysis of scientific categories. Heliyon 3:e00300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Bol T, de Vaan M, van de Rijt A (2018) The Matthew effect in science funding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:4887–4890

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references



Author information




RHMA: Literature search, Literature review, Data extraction, Writing. TCK: Literature search, Literature review, Writing, Editing, Content planning, Supervision. RMK: Literature search, Literature review, Writing, Editing, Content planning, Supervision.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thomas C. Kwee.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest


Consent for publication

All authors give consent for publication.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alkhawtani, R.H.M., Kwee, T.C. & Kwee, R.M. Funding of nuclear medicine research and association with citation impact. Clin Transl Imaging (2021).

Download citation


  • Financial support
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Research