Safety and Tolerability of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
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The chimeric protein echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase, resulting from the rearrangement of the homonym genes, is one of the currently targetable oncogenic drivers in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. In fact, four first- and second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors, crizotinib (PF-02341066), ceritinib (LDK378), alectinib (CH5424802), and brigatinib (AP26113), are presently approved for clinical practice; however, these agents are not devoid of complications and thus should be administered meaningfully. Furthermore, third-generation inhibitors are currently under development to overcome acquired resistance mechanisms inevitably resulting from treatment with first- and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Therefore, this article aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review about the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability profiles of currently available and promising under-development anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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No sources of funding were received for the preparation of this article.
Conflict of interest
Cesare Gridelli received honoraria as a speaker bureau and advisory board member and a consultant for Pfizer, Novartis, and Roche. Danilo Rocco, Ciro Battiloro, and Luigi Della Gravara have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the contents of this article.
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