Table 2 Inhibitory specificities of clinical index inhibitors and additional perpetrator drugs

From: Volume of Distribution is Unaffected by Metabolic Drug–Drug Interactions

Index inhibitor BDDCS class Enzyme Other relevant enzymes/transporters Refs.
Cimetidine 3 OCT2
CYP2C19
CYP3A
MATE1
CYP1A2
CYP2C9
CYP2D6
[5]
Ciprofloxacin 4 CYP1A2 CYP3A4 [4]
Clarithromycin 3 CYP3A4 CYP2C19
P-gp
[4]
Diltiazem 1 CYP3A4 CYP1A2
CYP2D6
P-gp
[5]
Disulfiram 2 CYP2E1 CYP1A2
CYP2C9
CYP2D6
[5]
Enoxacin 4 CYP1A2   [4]
Erythromycin 4 CYP3A4 P-gp [4]
Famotidine 3 Unknown   
Fluconazole 3 CYP2C9
CYP2C19
CYP3A4 [4]
Itraconazole 2 CYP3A4 CYP2J2
P-gp
[4]
Ketoconazole 2 CYP3A4 CYP2C19
P-gp
[4]
Lidocaine 1 CYP3A4 CYP1A2 [7]
Nalidixic acid 2 Unknown   
Nelfinavir 2 CYP3A4 CYP2D6 [8]
Norfloxacin 4 CYP1A2   [9]
Ofloxacin 3 Unknown   
Olanzapine 2 Unknown   
Ondansetron 1 Unknown   
Primaquine 1 Unknown   
Quinidine 1 CYP2D6 P-gp [4]
Ranitidine 3 OCT2
CYP3A
CYP2C9
CYP2D6
[5]
Rifampin (single dose) 2 OATPs CYP3A4 [6, 11]
Rifampin (multiple dose) 2 (Inducer)
CYP3A
CYP2C9
P-gp
(Inducer)
CYP1A
CYP2B6
CYP2C8
CYP2C19
[6]
Ritonavir (single dose) 2 CYP3A4 P-gp [4]
Ritonavir (multiple dose) 2 CYP induction   [4]
Sulfaphenazole 1 CYP2C9   [8]
Terbinafine 2 CYP2D6 CYP1A2 [4]
Verapamil 1 CYP3A4 P-gp [4]
  1. BDDCS Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System, CYP cytochrome P450, MATE Multidrug and Toxic Extrusion, OCT organic cation transporter, P-gp P-glycoprotein, Refs references