Table 1 Enzyme specificities of clinical index substrates and additional victim drugs

From: Volume of Distribution is Unaffected by Metabolic Drug–Drug Interactions

Substrate BDDCS class Enzyme Other relevant enzymes/transporters Refs.
Antipyrine 1 CYP1A2
CYP2C9
CYP3A
Multiple CYPs (2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2E1) [7]
Alfentanil 1 CYP3A [5]
Caffeine 1 CYP1A2 Xanthine oxidase
N-Acetyl transferase
[4]
Desipramine 1 CYP2D6 CYP3A [4]
Imipramine 1 CYP2C19 CYP2D6 [5]
Lidocaine 1 CYP3A CYP1A2 [7]
Metoprolol 1 CYP2D6 CYP3A [4]
Midazolam 1 CYP3A [4]
Theophylline 1 CYP1A2 CYP2E1
CYP3A
[4]
Tolbutamide 2 CYP2C9 OAT2 [4, 10]
  1. BDDCS Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System, CYP cytochrome P450, OAT organic anion transporter, Refs references