Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 267–277 | Cite as

A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Medication Adherence and Osteoporosis-Related Fracture Costs in Men

  • Yeshi Mikyas
  • Irene AgodoaEmail author
  • Nicole Yurgin
Systematic Review


Background and objective

Male osteoporosis is an increasingly important public health concern. Although several medications are approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, medication non-adherence and the associated consequences are not well documented in male populations. Our objective was to identify and summarize the current knowledge related to osteoporotic medication adherence, the potential implications of non-adherence to the medication, and the cost of osteoporosis-related fractures and health-resource utilization in men.


Two separate systematic searches were conducted concurrently: one to identify literature reporting male-specific adherence to anti-osteoporotic medication and the clinical consequence of non-adherence in men, and the other to identify literature reporting the cost and resource burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in men. The PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using a date range of 1 January 1998 to 30 June 2012, and citations were screened based on pre-defined criteria.


The percentage of males adherent to bisphosphonates [medication possession ratio (MPR) >0.8] over a 1-year period ranged from 32 % to 64 %. The data imply worse clinical outcomes with treatment non-adherence. Costs and resource use associated with osteoporosis-related fractures in men are high, with hip fractures generating the most cost.


One-third to two-thirds of men are not adherent to bisphosphonates. Non-adherence is associated with increased fracture risk. Estimates of direct and indirect osteoporosis-related fracture costs are also substantial in men, and may even be more costly than in women. More robust data would better inform disease management initiatives that could improve adherence to medication and outcomes in men with osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis Alendronate Medication Adherence Medication Possession Ratio Osteoporosis Medication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Acknowledgments and Conflicts of Interest

This study was funded by Amgen Inc. The authors wish to thank Seema Patel (previously at HERON Evidence Development Ltd, UK) for providing assistance for the initial literature search for this analysis. We would also like to thank Sally Wade for her assistance in incorporating revisions to this manuscript. Nicole Yurgin and Irene Agodoa are employees of Amgen, and Yeshi Mikyas was previously employed by Amgen. A summary of the adherence and cost reviews has previously been presented in poster format at the American Society of Bone Mineral Research (ASBMR) 2011 Annual Meeting (San Diego, CA, USA; presentation no. SU0442) and the IOF-ECCEO 2012 Meeting (Bordeaux, France; presentation no. P523 and P524).

All authors contributed to the conception and design of this study, as well as to the interpretation of the results. Yeshi Mikyas conducted the primary literature search, summarized the data, and drafted the manuscript. All authors provided critical revisions and final approval of the manuscript prior to journal submission. Nicole Yurgin is the guarantor for the overall content of this paper.

Supplementary material

40258_2013_78_MOESM1_ESM.docx (184 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 184 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amgen IncOne Amgen Center DriveThousand OaksUS

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