Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in vegetables in Iran: a nineteen-years meta-analysis review

Abstract

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two major protozoa reported from vegetables and environment. The prevalence of these parasites supposes to be different regarding the climate zones. This review aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in vegetables according to the major climate zones in Iran. The results showed pooled prevalence 7% (95% CI: 2%, 14%) and 4% (95% CI: 3%, 6%) for Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp., respectively. The prevalence of Giardia spp. in mountain, desert and semi-desert, and Mediterranean regions was 4% (95% CI: 2%, 6%), 5% (95% CI: 3%, 8%) and 7% (95% CI: 1%, 18%), respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. was reported 8% (95% CI: 0%, 65%), 6% (95% CI: 0%, 18%) and 4% (95% CI: 0%, 77%) from mountain, desert and semi-desert, and Mediterranean climate zones, respectively. This review suggests the higher prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Mediterranean and mountain regions, respectively.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to appreciate all colleagues of the Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Institute for their support during this study.

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Conceptualization: HM MRZ PK. Data gathering and testing eligibility of studies: HM EJ FS ESM. Geographical analysis: HM EJ FS. Data synthesis and meta-analysis: MO EG. Wrote the paper: HM EJ ESM PK. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Hamed Mirjalali.

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Javanmard, E., Mirsamadi, E.S., Olfatifar, M. et al. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in vegetables in Iran: a nineteen-years meta-analysis review. J Environ Health Sci Engineer (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00493-w

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Keywords

  • Giardia
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Vegetable farms
  • Climate conditions
  • Meta-analysis
  • Systematic review