The characteristics of pollution in the big industrial cities of Kazakhstan by the example of Almaty
Environmental pollution is a problem in the most industrial cities, including Almaty. These cities are frequently overpopulated and hazardous industrial facilities often have a negative impact on public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of pollution in Almaty city and assess possible impact on a human by comparing obtained results with sanitary and hygienic standards. (Hygienic standards (HS) 18.104.22.1682–06. AAC of chemical substances in soil Russia). We used both local standards, such as ST RK 2011–2010 "Water, Food, Stern and Tobacco Products. Determination of Chlororganic Pesticides" and International Standards (Customs Union) Sanitary Regulations and Norms number 4630–88.
The study was conducted by sampling air, water, and soil and subsequently analyzing them via laboratory and instrumental methods.
Heavy metals were detected via a high-precision method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Noise was measured on location. Geographic regions with characteristic types of pollution were discovered. It was found that the main polluting factors were as follows: air pollution – carbon monoxide, suspended solids in the form of dust, lead, and noise; water – ammonium compounds, organic substances (assessed based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) parameter), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB); soil – lead and PCB. The amount of suspended solids in the air exceeded standard levels by as much as 13.6 times.
We visualized obtained data (using StatSoft Statistica v6.0 Rus and Exhibit 3.0 (MIT Simile Project) Softwares) for three districts of Almaty, which allowed us to compare the results efficiently. The results show the need for a detailed study on the optimization of the state of the environment and public health. Plans for further studies include development of a system that would enable reducing the negative impact of industrial facilities on public health and the environment in general.
KeywordsPiedmont regions Environmental pollution Carbon monoxide Suspended solids Heavy metals Noise pollution
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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