Application of protection motivation theory to diabetic foot care Behaviours in Egypt



Foot care behaviours are considered the first line of defense against diabetic foot complications. In general, preventive behaviours are determined by multiple personal, social and psychological factors. The aim of this study was to assess foot care behaviours and their relation to protection motivation theory among a sample of adults with diabetes in Egypt.


A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about foot care practices and protection motivation theory among a random sample of 300 adults with diabetes attending primary health care units in Egypt.


The results demonstrated that the foot care behaviours were inadequate amongst the sample(mean 5.13 ± 1.92 out of 11). Three constructs of protection motivation theory predicted the behaviours, namely: self-efficacy (p = 0.015), perceived seriousness (p = 0.013) and intention to adhere to foot care (p = 0.021). On the other hand, intention to adhere to foot care was correlated with higher levels of self-efficacy and perceived seriousness, and to lower levels of perceived barriers.


There was a low level of foot self-care amongst the sample. Health education programs reinforcing the intention to adhere to foot care behaviours can improve foot care practices among people with diabetes through increasing self-efficacy and perceived seriousness and reducing perceived barriers.

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The author would like to thank all the staff of Damanhour directorate of health as well as the people with diabetes who were willing to give their time to participate in the study.


The research was funded by the author.

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Correspondence to Sherine Hassan.

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The author declares no conflict of interest.

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The study was approved by the Ethical Committee, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University.

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Hassan, S. Application of protection motivation theory to diabetic foot care Behaviours in Egypt. J Diabetes Metab Disord 19, 869–873 (2020).

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  • Diabetic foot
  • Foot care
  • Protection motivation theory
  • Intention