Gene ontology enrichment analysis of α-amylase inhibitors from Duranta repens in diabetes mellitus



Although α-amylase is the choice of target to manage postprandial hyperglycemia, inhibitors of this enzyme may get absorbed into the systemic circulation and modulate proteins involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the present study aimed to identify α-amylase inhibitors from Duranta repens via in silico and in vitro and predict their role in the modulation of multiple pathways involved in diabetes mellitus.


α-amylase inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extract/fractions (s) and pure compounds from D. repens was performed using in vitro enzyme inhibitory assay. Multiple open-source databases and published literature were used to retrieve reported phytoconstituents present in D. repens and their targets. The network was constructed between α-amylase inhibitors, modulated proteins, and expressed pathways. Further, hit molecules were also confirmed for their potency to inhibit α-amylase using in silico molecular docking and in vitro enzyme inhibitory assay. The glucose uptake assay was performed to assess the effect of hydrolcoholic extract/fraction(s) using rat hemidiaphragm.


Fraction rich in flavonoids showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity with a IC50 of 644.29 ± 4.36 µg/ml compared to other fractions. PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and p53 signaling pathway were predicted to be primarily modulated in the compound-protein-pathway network. Similarly, scutellarein was predicted as lead hit based on α-amylase inhibitory action, binding affinity, and regulated pathways. Further, α-amylase inhibitors were also predicted to modulate the pathways involved in diabetes complications like AGE-RAGE and FoxO signaling pathway. Fraction rich in flavonoids showed the highest glucose uptake in rat hemidiaphragm with an effective concentration of 534.73 ± 0.79 µg/ml.


The α-amylase inhibitors from D. repens may not be limited within the gastrointestinal tract to inhibit α-amylase but may get absorbed into the systemic circulation and modulate multiple pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus to produce synergistic/additive effect.

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Data availability

Data will be provided in case of a request.



Chemical Entities of Biological Interest


Diabetes Mellitus


Dipeptidyl peptidase-4


Glucose transporter

IC50 :

Inhibitory Concentration 50


Indian Council of Medical Research -National Institute of Traditional Medicine


Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes


Probable activity


Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances


PhytoChemical Interactions DB


Protein Data Bank


Probable inactivity


Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B


Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics


Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


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The authors are thankful to Principal KLE College of Pharmacy, Belagavi for providing necessary facilities and Head of Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, KLE College of Pharmacy, Belagavi, for supporting to complete the work. Pukar Khanal is also thankful to Ms. Taaza Duyu for her assistance during the enzyme inhibitory activity.


This work has not received any funds from national and international agencies.

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Khanal, P., Patil, B.M. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of α-amylase inhibitors from Duranta repens in diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab Disord (2020).

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  • α-amylase
  • Duranta repens
  • Naringenin
  • Network pharmacology
  • Scutellarein