The effects of exercise training on suppression of inflammation have been proposed as a therapeutic approach in recent years to modify the obesity-induced inflammatory status and immunometabolic disorders. The present study aimed to assess the impacts of an all-extremity combined high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory state and glycolipid metabolism in young sedentary overweight and obese females.
This was an quasi-experimental study which was applied by comparing two groups. The participants were allocated to two active (AG, n = 15) and inactive (IG, n = 15) groups. The serum level of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-10, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and tumor-necrosis factor α (TNFα) was measured in all subjects. Also, glycolipid metabolism was assessed by measuring the fasting lipid profile parameters, glucose, and insulin levels and calculating the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR).
Following a 10-week combined all-extremity HIIT in the active subjects, the TNFα, PTX3/IL-10, and TNFα/adiponectin were significantly reduced. However, the absolute levels of adiponectin, IL-10, and PTX3 remained unchanged. Additionally, a significant decrease was found in insulin, LDL, and HOMA2-IR, while insulin sensitivity and HDL levels showed a significant increase in the active group compared to the inactive group.
Our 10-week time-efficient combined all-extremity HIIT promoted an anti-inflammatory state and glycolipid metabolism improvement, suggesting this protocol as a practical therapeutic approach in sedentary obese females.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, metaflammation and immunometabolic disorders. Nature. 2017;542(7640):177–85.
Bonacina F, Moregola A, Porte R, Baragetti A, Bonavita E, Salatin A, et al. Pentraxin 3 deficiency protects from the metabolic inflammation associated to diet-induced obesity. Cardiovasc Res. 2019.
Alberti L, Gilardini L, Zulian A, Micheletto G, Peri G, Doni A, et al. Expression of long pentraxin PTX3 in human adipose tissue and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202(2):455–60.
Abderrahim-Ferkoune A, Bezy O, Chiellini C, Maffei M, Grimaldi P, Bonino F, et al. Characterization of the long pentraxin PTX3 as a TNFα-induced secreted protein of adipose cells. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(5):994–1000.
Ogawa T, Kawano Y, Imamura T, Kawakita K, Sagara M, Matsuo T, et al. Reciprocal contribution of pentraxin 3 and C-reactive protein to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity. 2010;18(9):1871–4.
Gurel H, Genc H, Celebi G, Sertoglu E, Cicek A, Kayadibi H, et al. Plasma pentraxin-3 is associated with endothelial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20(20):4305–12.
Zanetti M, Bosutti A, Ferreira C, Vinci P, Biolo G, Fonda M, et al. Circulating pentraxin 3 levels are higher in metabolic syndrome with subclinical atherosclerosis: evidence for association with atherogenic lipid profile. Clin Exp Med. 2009;9(3):243–8.
Miyaki A, Maeda S, Yoshizawa M, Misono M, Sasai H, Shimojo N, et al. Is pentraxin 3 involved in obesity-induced decrease in arterial distensibility? J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010:1002040175-.
Slusher AL, Mischo AB, Acevedo EO. Pentraxin 3 is an anti-inflammatory protein associated with lipid-induced interleukin 10 in vitro. Cytokine. 2016;86:36–40.
Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop N, et al. Position statement part one: immune function and exercise. 2011.
Nimmo M, Leggate M, Viana J, King J. The effect of physical activity on mediators of inflammation. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15(s3):51–60.
Barry JC, Simtchouk S, Durrer C, Jung ME, Mui AL, Little JP. Short-term exercise training reduces anti-inflammatory action of interleukin-10 in adults with obesity. Cytokine. 2018;111:460–9.
Luo Y, Liu M. Adiponectin: a versatile player of innate immunity. J Mol Cell Biol. 2016;8(2):120–8.
Park P-h, McMullen MR, Huang H, Thakur V, Nagy LE. Short-term treatment of RAW264. 7 macrophages with adiponectin increases tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression via ERK1/2 activation and Egr-1 expression role of TNF-α in adiponectin-stimulated interleukin-10 production. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(30):21695–703.
Lee S, Norheim F, Langleite TM, Gulseth HL, Birkeland KI, Drevon CA. Effects of long-term exercise on plasma adipokine levels and inflammation-related gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in sedentary dysglycaemic, overweight men and sedentary normoglycaemic men of healthy weight. Diabetologia. 2019;62(6):1048–64.
Soltani N, Marandi SM, Kazemi M, Esmaeil N. The exercise training modulatory effects on the obesity-induced immunometabolic dysfunctions. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020;13:785–810. https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S234992.
Gibala MJ, McGee SL. Metabolic adaptations to short-term high-intensity interval training: a little pain for a lot of gain? Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 2008;36(2):58–63.
Slusher AL, Shibata Y, Whitehurst M, Maharaj A, Quiles JM, Huang C-J. Exercise reduced pentraxin 3 levels produced by endotoxin-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in obese individuals. Exp Biol Med. 2017;242(12):1279–86.
Liu Y, Liu S-x, Cai Y, Xie K-l, Zhang W-l, Zheng F. Effects of combined aerobic and resistance training on the glycolipid metabolism and inflammation levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(7):2365–71.
Zwetsloot KA, John CS, Lawrence MM, Battista RA, Shanely RA. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men. J Inflamm Res. 2014;7:9.
Nutter J. Weight training adds up. Strategies. 1995;8(7):15–8.
Kaspersen KA, Dinh KM, Erikstrup LT, Burgdorf KS, Pedersen OB, Sørensen E, et al. Low-grade inflammation is associated with susceptibility to infection in healthy men: results from the danish blood donor study (DBDS). PloS one. 2016;11(10):e0164220.
Kim H-K, Hwang C-L, Yoo J-K, Hwang M-H, Handberg EM, Petersen JW, et al. All-extremity exercise training improves arterial stiffness in older adults. Med Sci sports Exerc. 2017;49(7):1404.
Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499–502.
Christiansen T, Paulsen SK, Bruun JM, Pedersen SB, Richelsen B. Exercise training versus diet-induced weight-loss on metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers in obese subjects: a 12-week randomized intervention study. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298(4):E824–31.
Liu Y, Sweeney G. Adiponectin action in skeletal muscle. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;28(1):33–41.
Steckling FM, Farinha JB, Figueiredo FdC, Santos DLD, Bresciani G, Kretzmann NA, et al. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2019;125(1):85–91.
Barry JC, Shakibakho S, Durrer C, Simtchouk S, Jawanda KK, Cheung ST, et al. Hyporesponsiveness to the anti-inflammatory action of interleukin-10 in type 2 diabetes. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21244.
Doni A, Stravalaci M, Inforzato A, Magrini E, Mantovani A, Garlanda C, et al. The long pentraxin PTX3 as a link between innate immunity, tissue remodeling, and cancer. Front Immunol. 2019;10(712). https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00712.
Slusher AL, Mock JT, Whitehurst M, Maharaj A, Huang C-J. The impact of obesity on pentraxin 3 and inflammatory milieu to acute aerobic exercise. Metabolism. 2015;64(2):323–9.
Hovsepian V, Marandi SM, Esfarjani F, Zavar R, Sadeghi M. The Effect of all-extremity high-intensity interval training on plasma pentraxin 3 in young overweight and obese women. Asian J Sports Med. 2019;10(4).
Markofski MM, Flynn MG, Carrillo AE, Armstrong CL, Campbell WW, Sedlock DA. Resistance exercise training-induced decrease in circulating inflammatory CD14 + CD16 + monocyte percentage without weight loss in older adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(8):1737–48.
Nunes PRP, Barcelos LC, Oliveira AA, Júnior RF, Martins FM, Orsatti CL, et al. Effect of resistance training on muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in postmenopausal women: controlled and randomized clinical trial of efficacy of training volume. Age. 2016;38(2):40.
Mazur-Bialy AI, Pocheć E, Zarawski M. Anti-inflammatory properties of irisin, mediator of physical activity, are connected with TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway activation. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(4):701.
Shin M-K, Choi B, Kim E-Y, Park J-E, Hwang ES, Lee HJ, et al. Elevated pentraxin 3 in obese adipose tissue promotes adipogenic differentiation by activating neuropeptide Y signaling. Front Immunol. 2018;9(1790). https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01790.
Goswami B, Rajappa M, Mallika V, Shukla DK, Kumar S. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio and C-reactive protein as markers of the inflammatory response in CAD-prone North Indian patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;408(1–2):14–8.
de Souza DC, Matos VA, dos Santos VO, Medeiros IF, Marinho CS, Nascimento PR, et al. Effects of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous exercise on inflammatory, leptin, IgA, and lipid peroxidation responses in obese males. Front Physiol. 2018;9.
Slusher AL, Zúñiga TM, Acevedo EO. Maximal exercise alters the inflammatory phenotype and response of mononuclear cells. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(4):675–83.
Antunes BM, Campos EZ, dos Santos RVT, Rosa-Neto JC, Franchini E, Bishop NC, et al. Anti‐inflammatory response to acute exercise is related with intensity and physical fitness. J Cell Biochem. 2019;120(4):5333–42.
Boutens L, Stienstra R. Adipose tissue macrophages: going off track during obesity. Diabetologia. 2016;59(5):879–94.
Park S-M, Kwak Y-S, Ji J-G. The effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin, and immune function of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015.
Kolahdouzi S, Baghadam M, Kani-Golzar FA, Saeidi A, Jabbour G, Ayadi A, et al. Progressive circuit resistance training improves inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance in obese men. Physiol Behav. 2019;205:15–21.
Chen S, Lin G, Lei L, You X, Wu C, Xu W, et al. Hyperlipidemia modifies innate immune responses to lipopolysaccharide via the TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway. Inflammation. 2013;36(4):968–76.
Treviño S, Aguilar-Alonso P, Flores Hernandez JA, Brambila E, Guevara J, Flores G, et al. A high calorie diet causes memory loss, metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress into hippocampus and temporal cortex of rats. Synapse. 2015;69(9):421–33.
Pang Y, Kartsonaki C, Turnbull I, Guo Y, Clarke R, Chen Y, et al. Diabetes, plasma glucose, and incidence of fatty liver, cirrhosis, and liver cancer: a prospective study of 0.5 million people. Hepatology. 2018;68(4):1308–18.
Guo H, Qiu X, Deis J, Lin T-Y, Chen X. Pentraxin 3 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in adipose tissue. Int J Obes. 2019:1.
The authors extended their appreciation to Dr. Hossein Khanahmad for his valuable advice. The support of Mrs. Mohadeseh Toghyani and Mrs. Fahimeh Hosseininasab involved in the Immunology Department of Isfahan University of Medical Science Staff is appreciated as well.
This study was funded by University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran (NO. IR.UI.REC.1396.039).
There are no competing conflicts of interest to declare.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Soltani, N., Marandi, S.M., Kazemi, M. et al. Meta-inflammatory state and insulin resistance can improve after 10 weeks of combined all-extremity high-intensity interval training in sedentary overweight/obese females: a quasi-experimental study. J Diabetes Metab Disord 19, 717–726 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00550-z
- Combined training
- Exercise therapy