A previous Japanese study has shown that the short (s) allele of the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), implicated in higher sensitivity to aversive stimuli, may promote motor inhibitory control in conditions where impulsivity is punished. The present study conducted in Australia replicates this Japanese study to examine if culture modulates the observed gene–behaviour link. Japan has a tight culture, where norm adherence and low impulsivity are emphasised. In contrast, Australia is a loose culture, where deviation from norms is tolerated to a greater extent. We therefore expected that the s-allele carriers’ strong motor inhibitory control in aversive conditions might be weaker in Australia than in Japan. Ninety-eight second-generation Australians of East Asian heritage, including 53s/s-allele carriers, 32s/l-allele carriers and 11l/l-allele carriers, participated in the reward/punishment-go/nogo task. As expected, s/s carriers in Australia, compared with their peers in Japan, showed higher impulsivity when inappropriate responding was punished (i.e. punishment-nogo conditions) but lower impulsivity when appropriate non-responding was rewarded (i.e. reward-nogo conditions). In contrast, the behaviours of the Australian s/l-allele carriers were similar to those of their Japanese counterparts. The results suggest that the larger context of culture that provides behavioural norms should be considered when examining gene × environment interaction.
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One l/l-allele carrier was omitted from Nomura et al. (2015) study.
Hypothesis 1 was also tested by comparing the l-allele carrier group (11l/l-allele carriers and 32s/l-allele carriers) with the s/s-allele carrier group, in a 2 (genotype) × 2 (go) × 2 (nogo) mixed-design ANCOVA, with age and gender as covariates. The ANCOVA results showed a significant genotype × nogo interaction effect, F1,92 = 4.97, p = 0.028, ηp2 = 0.05. No other effect was significant. The pattern of interaction suggested that CER was higher in the l-allele group (M = 27.69, SE = 1.95, CI [23.82, 31.56]) than in the s/s-allele group (M = 24.13, SE = 1.75, CI [20.65, 27.6]) in the punishment-nogo conditions; however, the result of the simple test was non-significant, p = 0.18. Further, CER in the l-allele group was significantly higher in the punishment-nogo conditions than in the reward-nogo conditions, Mdif = 3.96, p < 0.001, whereas CER in the s/s-allele group did not differ between the two conditions, Mdif = 0.80, p = 0.40. As such, the result was inconsistent with Hypothesis 1 and highly similar to the result of the analysis without l/l-allele participants.
We also compared the s/s-allele group’s CER between the two studies in each of the four experimental conditions. It was significantly higher in the present study in the RP condition (Mdif = 9.5, t85 = 3.29, p = 0.001) and marginally in the PP conditions (Mdif = 4.9, t85 = 1.68, p = 0.10). It was significantly lower in the present study in both the RR (Mdif = − 6.3, t85 = − 2.22, p = 0.03) and PR conditions (Mdif = − 9.0, t85 = − 3.06, p = 0.003). The results are consistent with the hypotheses.
We also compared the s/l-allele group’s CER between the studies in each of the four experimental conditions. The two groups’ means were similar except they were marginal in the RR condition: for RP (Mdif = 3.4, t56 = 0.94, p = 0.35), PP (Mdif = − 1.6, t56 = − 0.42, p = 0.68), RR (Mdif = − 7.8, t56 = − 1.84, p = 0.06), and PR (Mdif = − 3.7, t56 = − 0.95, p = 0.34). The results were consistent with Hypothesis 4.
When the CER means were compared between the l-allele carrier group (11l/l-allele carriers and 32s/l-allele carriers) in the present study and s/l participants (n = 26) in Nomura et al.’s (2015) study, the differences were again non-significant for RP (Mdif = 5.37, t67 = 1.53, p = 0.14), PP (Mdif = − 1.21, t67 = − 0.34, p = 0.74), RR (Mdif = − 6.28, t67 = − 1.52, p = 0.11) and PR (Mdif = − 3.48, t67 = − 0.96, p = 0.34). Thus, the CER means were similar between the two studies regardless of whether the l/l-allele carriers were included or not in the analyses.
The mean OERs in the punishment-nogo conditions were 28.26 in Nomura et al.’s (2015) study and 22.09 in the present study, which significantly differed, t143 = 4.01, p < 0.001, whereas the mean OERs in the reward-nogo conditions were similar in the two studies (21.63 and 20.19, t143 < 1). This result relates to the fact that OERs were higher in the punishment-nogo than in the reward-nogo conditions in Nomura et al.’s (2015) study. Because omission errors suggest inattention, the participants in our study might have engaged in the task more consistently than those in the previous study.
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This research was supported by La Trobe University, with the Transforming Human Societies Research-Focused Area Research Grant to the first author.
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Kashima, E.S., Guggolz, L., Bowden-Dodd, J. et al. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and impulsivity under punishment: a gene × culture interaction. Cult. Brain (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40167-020-00098-y
- Gene × culture interaction
- Cultural tightness
- Gene × environment interaction