Mothering styles and family models of different cultures- that vary in interdependency and independency combinations—can influence the development of basic affects differently. The present study carried out the cross-cultural comparisons of samples from Japan, Turkey and Germany on self-construals, basic affects and Big Five factors. The countries were selected along a Euro-Asian spectrum, from highly collectivistic Japan to least collectivistic Germany, with Turkey as a bridging culture. The sample consisted of undergraduate and graduate students from Kyoto in Japan (n = 353), Istanbul in Turkey (n = 327) and Bonn in Germany (n = 222). The questionnaire included the self-construal scale (SCS), the affective neuroscience personality scales (ANPS) and the big five scale (B5S). SCS scores showed that the level of interdependent self-construals decreased from East to West, but independent self-construals did not gradually increase. Highest independency score was found in Turkey. Theoretically well-known German individualism was not found to be based on higher independency, but on lower interdependency. On ANPS, female groups seemed very similar on positive affects whereas for negative affects they had differences; like Japanese females had higher FEAR, Turkish females had higher ANGER. Similarly, Japanese males had higher FEAR and SADNESS, Turkish males had higher ANGER. On ANPS, Turkish and Japanese males were more similar and distinct from the German males who had lower scores almost on all affects. However on B5S; Turks and Germans were found to be quite similar and distinct from the Japanese. Turkey seemed to maintain more subcortical affective personality similarities with Japan, while attuning more to B5 factors displayed by Germany. Findings are discussed in light of child-rearing styles in each country.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abella, V., Panksepp, J., Manga, D., Bárcena, C., & Iglesias, J. A. (2011). Spanish validation of the affective neuroscience personality scales. The Spanish Journal of Psychology,14(2), 926–935.
Boiger, M., Güngör, D., Karasawa, M., & Mesquita, B. (2014). Defending honour, keeping face: Interpersonal affordances of anger and shame in Turkey and Japan. Cognition and Emotion,28(7), 1255–1269.
Çağatay, E., & Kuban, D. (2006). The Turkic speaking peoples: 2000 years of art and culture from inner Asia to the Balkans. Munich: Prestel.
Chen, C., Burton, M., Greenberger, E., & Dmitrieva, J. (1999). Population Migration and the Variation of Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4) Allele Frequencies Around the Globe. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 309–324.
Chiao, J. Y., & Blizinsky, K. D. (2010). Culture-gene coevolution of individualism-collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene. Proceedings Biological Sciences/The Royal Society,277(1681), 529–537.
Clemens, J. (2017). A brief history of Japan: Samurai, Shogun and Zen: The extraordinary story of the rising sun. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing.
Coggins, J., & Fox, J. R. E. (2009). A qualitative exploration of eöotional inhibition: a basic emotions and developmental perspective. Clin Psychology Psychotherapy,16(1), 55–76.
Çorapçı, F., Aksan, N., & Yağmurlu, B. (2012). Socialization of Turkish children’s emotions: Do different emotions elicit different responses? Global Studies of Childhood,2(2), 106–116.
Davis, K. L., Panksepp, J., & Normansell, L. (2003). The affective neuroscience personality scales: Normative data and implications. Neuropsychoanalysis,5(1), 57–69.
Davis, K. L., & Panksepp, J. (2011). The brain’s emotional foundations of human personality and the affective neuroscience personality scales. Neuroscience and Bio-behavioral Reviews,35, 1946–1958.
Fisek, G. O., & Kağıtçıbaşı, C. (1999). Multiculturalism and psychotherapy: The Turkish case. In P. Pedersen (Ed.), Multiculturalism as a Fourth Force (pp. 75–90). Castleton: Hamilton.
Fişek, G. O. (2010). Relationality, intersubjectivity, and culture: Experiences in a therapeutic discourse of virtual kinship. Studies in Gender and Sexuality,11, 47–59.
Fişek, G. O. (2018). İlişki İçinde Ben: Kültür, Aile, Bireyselleşme ve Psikanalitik Arayışlar (self in relation: Culture, family, individualization and psychoanalytic searches). Istanbul: İstanbul Bilgi University Publications.
Friedlmeier, W., Çorapçı, F., & Cole, P. M. (2011). Emotion socialization in cross-cultural perspective. Social and Personality Psychology,5(7), 410–427.
Friedlmeier, W., & Trommsdorff, G. (1998). Japanese and german mother-child interactions in early childhood. In G. Trommsdorff, W. Friedlmeier, & H.-J. Kornadt (Eds.), Japan in transition: Comparative view on social and psychological aspects (pp. 217–230). Lengerich: Pabst Science.
Friesen, W. V. (1972). Cultural differences in facial expressions in a social situation: An experimental test of the concept of display rules. San Francisco: University of California.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,59(6), 1216–1229.
Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of markers for the big-five factor structure. Psychological Assessment,4(1), 26–42.
Gurven, M., von Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H., & Vie, M. L. (2013). How universal is the big five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,104(2), 354–370.
Han, S., & Northoff, G. (2008). Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: A transcultural neuroimaging approach. Nature Reviews Neuroscience,9(8), 646–654.
Hawes, J. (2017). The shortest history of Germany. London: Old Street Publishing.
Holloway, S. D., & Nagase, A. (2014). Child rearing in Japan. In H. Selin (Ed.), Parenting across cultures: Childrearing, motherhood and fatherhood in non-western cultures (pp. 59–76). Dordrecht: Springer.
İmamoglu, E. O., & Karakitapoglu-Aygun, Z. (2004). Self-construals and values in different cultural and socioeconomic contexts. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs,130(4), 277–306.
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford.
Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (1996). The autonomous-relational self: A new synthesis. European Psychologist,1, 180–186.
Kagıtçıbaşı, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,36, 403–422.
Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2007). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kirmayer, L. J. (2007). Psychotherapy and cultural concept of the person. Transcultural Psychiatry,44(2), 232–257.
Korkmaz, B., & Njiokiktjien, C. A. V. (2013). Children’s social relatedness: An embodied brain process. Amsterdam: Suyi Publications.
Levinson, C. A., Langer, J. K., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2011). Self-construal and social anxiety: Considering personality. Personality and Individual Differences,51, 355–359.
Lim, L. (2013). Taijin-Kyofu-Sho: A subtype of social anxiety. Open Journal of Psychiatry,3(4), 393.
Luo, S., & Han, S. (2014). The association between an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism and cultural orientations. Culture and Brain,2(1), 89–107.
Mahler, M. S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (2008). The psychological birth of the human infant: Symbiosis and individuation. New York: Basic Books.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review,98(2), 224–253.
Mayer, B., Trommsdorff, G., Kagıtçıbaşı, Ç., & Mishrac, R. C. (2012). Family models of independence/interdependence and their intergenerational similarity in Germany, Turkey, and India. Family Science,3, 64–74.
McDonald, J. D. (2005). Y haplogroups of the world. Unpublished Research: University of Illinois. Retrieved from http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf.
Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist,58(1), 24–35.
Mindell, J. A., Sadeh, A., Kohyama, J., & How, T. H. (2010). Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: A cross-cultural comparison. Sleep Medicine,11(4), 393–399.
Mondillon, L., Niedenthal, P. M., Brauer, M., Rohmann, A., Dalle, N., & Uchida, Y. (2005). Beliefs about power and its relation to emotional experience: A comparison of Japan, France, Germany, and the United States. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,31(8), 1112–1122.
Montag, C., Hahn, E., Reuter, M., Spinath, F. M., Davis, K., & Panksepp, J. (2016a). The role of nature and nurture for individual differences in primary emotional systems: Evidence from a twin study. PLoS ONE,11(3), e0151405.
Montag, C., Widenhorn-Müller, K., Panksepp, J., & Kiefer, M. (2016b). Individual differences in affective neuroscience personality scale (ANPS) primary emotional traits and depressive tendencies. Comprehensive Psychiatry,73, 136–142.
Narita, K., Hatta, T., Hirao, K., Mitamura, T., Yama, M., & Yokode, M. (2017). The validity and reliability in Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale Japanese Edition: An approach to human personality from the Affective Neuroscience [in Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 17(5), 691–702.
Narvaez, D., Panksepp, J., Schore, A. N., & Gleason, T. R. (2012). Evolution, early experience and human development: From research to practice and policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Oppenheimer, S. (2012). Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents and islands: Tracing uniparental gene trees across the map. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B,367(1590), 770–784.
Özdemir, S. B. (2009). Turkish mothers’ attributions, emotions, strategies, and goals in response to aggressive and socially withdrawn behaviors. Unpublished Master’s thesis. University of Maryland.
Özkarar-Gradwohl, F. G., Panksepp, J., İçöz, F. J., Çetinkaya, H., Köksal, F., Davis, K. L., et al. (2014). The influence of culture on basic affective systems: The comparison of Turkish and American norms on the affective neuroscience personality scales. Culture and Brain,2(2), 173–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40167-014-0021-9.
Pahlavan, F., Mouchiroud, C., Zenasni, F., & Panksepp, J. (2008). French validation of the affective neuroscience personality scales (ANPS). Revue Europeene de Psychologie Appliquee,58(3), 155–163.
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Panksepp, J. (2011). Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals. PloS One, 6, e21236. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021236.
Panksepp, J., & Biven, L. (2012). The archaeology of mind: Neuroevolutionary origins of human emotions (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology). New York: W. W. Norton.
Panksepp, J., & Solms, M. (2012). What is neuropsychoanalysis? Clinically relevant studies of the minded brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,16, 6–8.
Piedmont, R. L., Bain, E., McCrae, R. R., & Cost, P. T. (2002). The Applicability of the Five-Factor Model in a Sub-Saharan Culture. The NEO-PI-R in Shana. In R. R. McCrae & J. Allik (Eds.). The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures (pp. 155–173).
Pingault, J.-B., Pouga, L., Grèzes, J., & Berthoz, S. (2012). Determination of emotional endophenotypes: A validation of the affective neuroscience personality scales and further perspectives. Psychological Assessment,24(2), 375–385.
Rentfrow, P. J. (2014). Geographical psychology: Exploring the interaction of environment and behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Reuter, M., Panksepp, J., Davis, K. L., & Montag, C. (2017). Die affective neuroscience personality scales (ANPS)—Testmanual zur deutschsprachigen. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Roland, A. (1988). In search of self in India and Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Roland, A. (1996). Cultural pluralism and psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Routledge.
Saucier, G., & Skrzypińska, K. (2006). Spiritual but not religious? Evidence for two independent dispositions. Journal of Personality,74(5), 1257–1292.
Scheele, D., Kendrick, K. M., Khouri, C., Kretzer, E., Schläpfer, T. E., Stoffel-Wagner, B., et al. (2014). An oxytocin-induced facilitation of neural and emotional responses to social touch correlates inversely with autism traits. Neuropsychopharmacology,39(9), 2078–2085.
Schmitt, D. P., Allik, J., McCrae, R. R., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2007). The geographic distribution of big five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,38(2), 173–212.
Schore, A. N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Shimizu, M., Park, H., & Greenfield, P. M. (2014). Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers. Frontiers in Psychology,5, 718.
Sindermann, C., Kendrick, K., Becker, B., Li, M., Li, S., & Montag, C. (2017). Does growing up in urban compared to rural areas shape primary emotional traits? Behavioral sciences,7, 60.
Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,20(5), 580–591.
Song, J. H., & Trommsdorff, G. (2016). Linking maternal emotion socialization to boys’ and girls’ emotion regulation in Korea. Child Studies in Asia-Pacific Contexts,6(2), 47–57.
Takahashi, T., Hadzibeganovic, T., Cannas, S. A., Makino, T., Fukui, H., & Kitayama, S. (2009). Cultural neuroeconomics of intertemporal choice. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva.
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism & collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Triandis, H. C. (1997). Cross-cultural perspectives on personality. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 439–464). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50019-6.
Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,54(2), 323–338.
Vignoles, V. L., et al. (2016). Beyond the East-West dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood. Journal of Experimental Psychology,145(8), 966–1000.
Vriends, N., Pfaltz, M. C., Novianti, P., & Hadiyono, J. (2013). Taijin Kyofusho and social anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland. Frontiers in Psychology,1, 3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00003.
Wade, M., Hoffmann, T. J., Wigg, K., & Jenkins, J. M. (2014). Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and children’s social cognition at 18 months. Genes, Brain and Behavior,13(7), 603–610.
Wasti, S. A., & Erdil, S. E. (2007). Bireycilik ve toplulukçuluk değerlerinin ölçülmesi: benlik kurgusu ve INDCOL ölçeklerinin Türkçe geçerlemesi. Yönetim Araştırmaları Dergisi,7, 39–66.
Zhu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, J., & Han, S. (2007). Neural basis of cultural influence on self-representation. NeuroImage,34(3), 1310–1316.
We are grateful to Jaak Panksepp for supporting this first Cross-cultural Affective Neuroscience Personality Research on a Euro-Asian spectrum and being an active author of this manuscript. We will continue our projects in light of his immortal theory. We would also like to thank Kazuyuki Hirao, Taichi Hatta, and Hiroki Hosogoshi for their assistance in data collection for the Japanese sample, Ferhat Jak içöz for his assistance in data collection for the Turkish sample and Altan Orhon for his help in statistical analysis.
About this article
Cite this article
Özkarar-Gradwohl, F.G., Narita, K., Montag, C. et al. Cross-cultural affective neuroscience personality comparisons of Japan, Turkey and Germany. Cult. Brain 8, 70–95 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40167-018-0074-2
- Affective neuroscience
- Affective neuroscience personality scales
- Big five
- Cross-cultural affective neuroscience