This work reports on the development of pastes containing Ti, TiC, Si, and C elementary powders for in situ synthesis of Ti3SiC2 via screen printing. Four paste compositions were manufactured using two powder mixtures (Ti/Si/C and Ti/TiC/Si/C) with different stoichiometry. The pastes were screen printed onto Al2O3 substrates and sintered at 1400 ℃ in argon varying the dwell time from 1 to 5 h. The printed pastes containing TiC and excess of Si exhibited the lowest surface roughness and after 5 h sintering comprised of Ti3SiC2 as the majority phase. The electrical conductivity of this sample was found to range from 4.63×104 to 2.57×105 S·m–1 in a temperature range of 25–400 ℃.
Barsoum MW, El-Raghy T. Synthesis and characterization of a remarkable ceramic: Ti3SiC2. J Am Ceram Soc 1996, 79: 1953–1956.
El-Raghy T, Barsoum MW. Diffusion kinetics of the carburization and silicidation of Ti3SiC2. J Appl Phys 1998, 83: 112–119.
El-Raghy T, Barsoum MW. Processing and mechanical properties of Ti3SiC2: I, reaction path and microstructure evolution. J Am Ceram Soc 1999, 82: 2849–2854.
Emmerlich J, Music D, Eklund P, et al. Thermal stability of Ti3SiC2 thin films. Acta Mater 2007, 55: 1479–1488.
Sun ZM, Zhou YC. Fluctuation synthesis and characterization of Ti3SiC2 powders. Mater Res Innov 1999, 2: 227–231.
Zhou Y, Sun Z. Temperature fluctuation/hot pressing synthesis of Ti3SiC2. J Mater Sci 2000, 35: 4343–4346.
Gao NF, Miyamoto Y, Zhang D. Dense Ti3SiC2 prepared by reactive HIP. J Mater Sci 1999, 34: 4385–4392.
Gao N, Li J, Zhang D, et al. Rapid synthesis of dense Ti3SiC2 by spark plasma sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 2002, 22: 2365–2370.
Carrijo MMM, Caro LG, Lorenz H, et al. Ti3SiC2-based inks for direct ink-jet printing technology. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 820–824.
Schultheiß J, Dermeik B, Filbert-Demut I, et al. Processing and characterization of paper-derived Ti3SiC2 based ceramic. Ceram Int 2015, 41: 12595–12603.
Emmerlich J, Högberg H, Sasvári S, et al. Growth of Ti3SiC2 thin films by elemental target magnetron sputtering. J Appl Phys 2004, 96: 4817–4826.
Carrijo MMM, Lorenz H, Filbert-Demut I, et al. Fabrication of Ti3SiC2-based composites via threedimensional printing: Influence of processing on the final properties. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 9557–9564.
Li SB, Zhai HX. Synthesis and reaction mechanism of Ti3SiC2 by mechanical alloying of elemental Ti, Si, and C powders. J Am Ceram Soc 2005, 88: 2092–2098.
Dcosta D, Sun W, Lin F, et al. Freeform fabrication of Ti3SiC2 powder-based structures. J Mater Process Technol 2002, 127: 352–360.
Faddoul R, Reverdy-Bruas N, Blayo A. Formulation and screen printing of water based conductive flake silver pastes onto green ceramic tapes for electronic applications. Mat Sci Eng B 2012, 177: 1053–1066.
Phair JW, Lundberg M, Kaiser A. Leveling and thixotropic characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks for screen printing. Rheol Acta 2009, 48: 121–133.
Lin HW, Chang CP, Hwu WH, et al. The rheological behaviors of screen-printing pastes. J Mater Process Technol 2008, 197: 284–291.
Goldberg HD, Brown RB, Liu DP, et al. Screen printing: A technology for the batch fabrication of integrated chemicalsensor arrays. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 1994, 21: 171–183.
Phair JW. Rheological analysis of concentrated zirconia pastes with ethyl cellulose for screen printing SOFC electrolyte films. J Am Ceram Soc 2008, 91: 2130–2137.
Carrijo MMM, Lorenz H, Rambo CR, et al. Fabrication of Ti3SiC2-based pastes for screen printing on paper-derived Al2O3 substrates. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 8116–8124.
Zan QF, Wang CA, Huang Y, et al. The interface-layer and interface in the Al2O3/Ti3SiC2 multilayer composites prepared by in situ synthesis. Mater Lett 2003, 57: 3826–3832.
Kluthe C, Dermeik B, Kollenberg W, et al. Processing, microstructure and properties of paper-derived porous Al2O3 substrates. J Ceram Sci Technol 2012, 3: 111–118.
Inukai K, Takahashi Y, Ri K, et al. Rheological analysis of ceramic pastes with ethyl cellulose for screen-printing. Ceram Int 2015, 41: 5959–5966.
Méndez-Vilas A, Díaz J. Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy. Badajoz, Spain: Formatex, 2007.
DIN EN ISO 4287: 2010-07. Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters (ISO 4287:1997 + Cor 1:1998 + Cor 2:2005 + Amd 1:2009); German version EN ISO 4287:1998 + AC:2008 + A1:2009. 2010.
Murakami S, Ri K, Itoh T, et al. Effects of ethyl cellulose polymers on rheological properties of (La,Sr)(Ti,Fe)O3- terpineol pastes for screen printing. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 1661–1666.
Sedlacek M, Podgornik B, Vižintin J. Influence of surface preparation on roughness parameters, friction and wear. Wear 2009, 266: 482–487.
Sato F, Li JF, Watanabe R. Reaction synthesis of Ti3SiC2 from mixture of elemental powders. Mater Trans, JIM 2000, 41: 605–608.
Racault C, Langlais F, Naslain R. Solid-state synthesis and characterization of the ternary phase Ti3SiC2. J Mater Sci 1994, 29: 3384–3392.
Arunajatesan S, Carim AH. Synthesis of titanium silicon carbide. J Am Ceram Soc 1995, 78: 667–672.
Gauthier V, Cochepin B, Dubois S, et al. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of Ti3SiC2: Study of the reaction mechanisms by time-resolved X-ray diffraction and infrared thermography. J Am Ceram Soc 2006, 89: 2899–2907.
Wu JY, Zhou YC, Wang JY, et al. Interfacial reaction between Cu and Ti2SnC during processing of Cu-Ti2SnC composite. Zeitschrift Für Met 2005, 96: 1314–1320.
Yang SL, Sun ZM, Hashimoto H. Reaction in Ti3SiC2 powder synthesis from a Ti-Si-TiC powder mixture. J Alloys Compd 2004, 368: 312–317.
Klemm H, Tanihata K, Miyamoto Y. Gas pressure combustion sintering and hot isostatic pressing in the Ti-Si-C system. J Mater Sci 1993, 28: 1557–1562.
Zhang HB, Zhou YC, Bao YW, et al. Intermediate phases in synthesis of Ti3SiC2 and Ti3Si(Al)C2 solid solutions from elemental powders. J Eur Ceram Soc 2006, 26: 2373–2380.
Park CS, Zheng F, Salamone S, et al. Processing of composites in the Ti-Si-C system. J Mater Sci 2001, 36: 3313–3322.
Lorenz H, Thäter J, Matias Carrijo MM, et al. In situ synthesis of paper-derived Ti3SiC2. J Mater Res 2017, 32: 3409–3414.
Radhakrishnan R, Williams J, Akinc M. Synthesis and high-temperature stability of Ti3SiC2. J Alloys Compd 1999, 285: 85–88.
Yoo HI, Barsoum MW, El-Raghy T. Ti3SiC2 has negligible thermopower. Nature 2000, 407: 581–582.
Palmquist J-P, Li S, Persson POÅ, et al. Mn+1AXn phases in the Ti-Si-C system studied by thin-film synthesis and ab initio calculations. Phys Rev B 2004, 70: 165401.
Gupta KM, Gupta N. Advanced Electrical and Electronics Materials. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.
Wang XH, Zhou YC. Improvement of intermediatetemperature oxidation resistance of Ti3AlC2 by preoxidation at high temperatures. Mater Res Innov 2003, 7: 205–211.
The authors thank the Central Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy (LCME-UFSC) and the multiuser facility LDRX at UFSC. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brazil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001, under Project number 88881.310728/2018-01 and by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq-Brazil), Project number PVE-CNPq-407102/2013-2.
About this article
Cite this article
Lorenz, M., Travitzky, N. & Rambo, C.R. Effect of processing parameters on in situ screen printing-assisted synthesis and electrical properties of Ti3SiC2-based structures. J Adv Ceram 10, 129–138 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-020-0427-0
- MAX phases
- screen printing
- in situ synthesis
- electrical conductivity