Journal of Advanced Ceramics

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 277–283 | Cite as

A new sintering approach to ceramics at low temperature from Ba(Zr x Ti1-x)O3 nanoparticles doped by ZnO

  • Rui Guo
  • Jianquan Qi
  • Jiali Luo
  • Xiaoyu Dong
  • Longtu Li
Open Access
Research Article


The sintering temperature decreases theoretically with the grain size of the ceramic powders, but it is not always right for fine grain sized nanopowders due to the inevitable agglomerations, and thus pores are hard to eliminate thoroughly during sintering. To overcome this difficulty, a new approach is designed to sintering ceramics at low temperature from nanoparticles. In this scheme, excessive dopants, such as ZnO, are synthesized into the nanoparticles, and they would be liberated again on the surfaces of the grains at high temperature as sintering aids homogenously to promote densification. Here, we compared the ceramic sintering of ZnO-doped barium zirconate titanate (BaZr x Ti1-xO3, BZT) nanoparticles with BZT nanoparticles using ZnO as additive at 1150 °C. Both kinds of nanoparticles were directly synthesized by the same process at room temperature and yielded the same initial grain size of ~10 nm. The dense BZT ceramic with relative density of 99% was fabricated from the 2 mol% ZnO-doped nanoparticles. On the other hand, the porous BZT ceramic with density of 78% was obtained from nanoparticles with 2 mol% ZnO as additive. Therefore, our strategy to ceramic sintering at low temperature from nanoparticles was confirmed.


barium zirconate titanate (BaZrxTi1-xO3 BZT) nanopowder direct synthesis sintering 



The authors are grateful for the supports of Basic Key Program of Applied Basic Research of Science and Technology Commission Foundation of Hebei Province in China (Grant Nos. 14961108D and 15961005D) and Open Project of State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University (No. KF201410).


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© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Gmbh 2016

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Guo
    • 1
  • Jianquan Qi
    • 1
  • Jiali Luo
    • 1
  • Xiaoyu Dong
    • 1
  • Longtu Li
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Nature Resources & Materials ScienceNortheastern University at QinhuangdaoQinhuangdao, HebeiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics and New ProcessingTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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