Uveal Melanoma: A Review of Prognostic Factors for Metastases

Abstract

Purpose of Review

In this article, we review the clinical and molecular prognostic factors for metastasis in uveal melanoma.

Recent Findings

Prognostic predictors for metastasis in uveal melanoma have evolved from utilizing clinical and histopathologic information to incorporating genetic data (e.g., gene expression profiling and chromosomal abnormality tests). Commercially available gene expression profiling and chromosomal abnormality tests have been validated to provide robust, reproducible prognostic information. Recently, the preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) has been identified as a biomarker for increased risk of metastasis, and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Project has suggested four prognostic categories.

Summary

Prognostication of uveal melanoma informs patient management decisions in terms of appropriate intervals of surveillance screening and selection of high-risk patients appropriate for clinical trials. Understanding the factors involved in development of metastasis also helps elucidate potential biologic targets for therapeutics.

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Funding

This manuscript is partially supported by the Richard N and Marilyn K Witham Professorship, Todd Peters.

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Correspondence to Hakan Demirci.

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Chang, E., Demirci, H. Uveal Melanoma: A Review of Prognostic Factors for Metastases. Curr Ophthalmol Rep 9, 1–6 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40135-020-00261-x

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Keywords

  • Uveal melanoma
  • Ciliary body melanoma
  • Choroidal melanoma
  • Gene expression profiling
  • Metastasis
  • Prognosis