Bioengineering of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells from Single- to Four-Dimensional Cultures


Purpose of Review

To summarize the recent advances of clinical and preclinical studies for corneal endothelial tissue bioengineering.

Recent Findings

The challenges facing the generation of a clinical applicable corneal endothelial graft can be broadly classified into cell source selection, culture medium optimization, scaffold establishment, and the following three- and four-dimensional (4D) corneal construction. Based on the current advances in primary human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) culture and good manufacturing practice (GMP)–compliant medium development, the first clinical trial of bioengineered HCEC injection therapy has been conducted with encouraging results. Other significant findings include the in vivo experiments of the stem cell–derived HCEC, the development of serum-, xeno-, and additive-free media, and the construction of 4D scaffold.


It can be anticipated that tissue engineering–based therapy toward corneal endothelial diseases will replace the current keratoplasty method as a promising treatment option in the near future.

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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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The authors thank the advice from Dr. Scheffer C.G. Tseng at the Ocular Surface Center, Miami, FL, USA.


The research was funded by the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPG3J0511 and CMRPG3G0031~3) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 107-2314-B-182A-088-MY3).

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Correspondence to Hung-Chi Chen.

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All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

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Tsao, Y., Cheng, C., Wu, W. et al. Bioengineering of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells from Single- to Four-Dimensional Cultures. Curr Ophthalmol Rep (2020).

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  • Bioengineering
  • Corneal endothelium
  • Tissue culture
  • Cell therapy
  • Culture medium
  • Scaffold