Indian Geotechnical Journal

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 207–234 | Cite as

An Integrated Approach for Resilience and Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering

  • Mina Lee
  • Dipanjan Basu
Original Paper


Excessive consumption of energy and natural resources and generation of pollutants are the main reasons why sustainable practices should be strongly advocated in geotechnical engineering. Resilience, on the other hand, is also important as it improves the ability to cope with uncertain yet extreme events that may occur over the long life cycle of geotechnical infrastructure. There has been increasing recognition that sustainability needs to be incorporated and practiced in geotechnical engineering, but little attention has been paid on incorporating resilience although sustainability and resilience share similar objectives and values. A geotechnical infrastructure may not be truly sustainable if it is not resilient against extreme events and climate change because undesirable consequences caused by the failure of geotechnical infrastructure make the system unsustainable. It is important that the concepts of sustainability and resilience are concurrently considered to ensure that resilience in geotechnical infrastructure is developed while sustainable practices are performed. This paper presents an overview of the key concepts of sustainability and resilience with a particular emphasis on resilience in order to understand the differences and connections between the two. The quantitative and qualitative assessment methods of resilience are also discussed. An integrated assessment framework for the quantification of resilience and sustainability of geotechnical infrastructure is proposed, which is developed based on the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework.


Sustainability Resilience DPSIR framework Assessment Geotechnical engineering 


  1. 1.
    Gibson RB (2006) Sustainability assessment: basic components of a practical approach. Impact Assess Proj Apprais 24(3):170–182MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Basu D, Misra A, Puppala AJ (2015) Sustainability and geotechnical engineering: perspectives and review. Can Geotech J 52(1):96–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Basu D, Puppala AJ (2015) Principles of sustainability and their applications in geotechnical engineering. In: Geotechnical Synergy in Buenos Aires, pp 162–183Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kibert CJ (2008) Sustainable construction: green building design and delivery, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Korhonen J, Seager TP (2008) Beyond eco-efficiency: a resilience perspective. Bus Strateg Environ 17:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park J, Seager TP, Rao PSC (2011) Lessons in risk- versus resilience-based design and management. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7(3):396–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    National Infrastructure Advisory Council (2009) Critical infrastructure resilience final report and recommendationsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leaning J, Guha-Sapir D (2014) Natural disasters, armed conflict, and public health. N Engl J Med 26(2):147–154Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    NASA (2017) Climate change: how do we know?
  11. 11.
    Carter S, Cox A (2001) One 9/11 Tally: $3.3 Trillion. The New York Times, 08-Sep-2001Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ayyub BM (2014) Systems resilience for multihazard environments: definition, metrics, and valuation for decision making. Risk Anal 34(2):340–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Basu D (2013) A brief overview of sustainability and its assessment in geotechnical engineering. In: Proceedings of GeoMontreal 2013Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rinaldi BSM, Peerenboom JP, Kelly TK (2001) Identifying, understanding, and analyzing, pp 11–25Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Min H-SJ, Beyeler W, Brown T, Son YJ, Jones AT (2007) Toward modeling and simulation of critical national infrastructure interdependencies. IIE Trans 39(1):57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hopwood B, Mellor M, O’Brien G (2005) Sustainable development: mapping different approaches. Sustain Dev 13:38–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brundtland GH (1987) Our common future: report of the 1987 world commission on environment and development, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Edwards AR (2005) The sustainability revolution: portrait of a paradigm shift. New Society Publishers, Gabriola IslandGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Folke C, Carpenter S, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling C, Walker B (2002) Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio 31(5):437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clark WC, Dickson NM (2003) Sustainability science: the emerging research program. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(14):8059–8061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Redman CL (2014) Should sustainability and resilience be combined or remain distinct pursuits? Ecol Soc 19(2):37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holling CS (1996) Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. Eng Ecol Constraints 1996:31–44Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pimm SL (1984) The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature 307(26):321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walker B, Salt D (2006) Resilience thinking: sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gunderson LH (2000) Ecological resilience in theory and application. Ecol Syst 31:425–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mu D, Seager TP, Rao PSC, Park J, Zhao F (2011) A Resilience perspective on biofuel production. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7(3):348–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Walker B, Holling CS, Carpenter SR, Kinzig A (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social—ecological systems. Ecol Soc 9(2):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fiksel J (2003) Designing resilient, sustainable systems. Environ Sci Technol 37(23):5330–5339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (2012) Benefits of FireGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carpenter S, Walker B, Anderies JM, Abel N (2001) From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what? Ecosystems 4(8):765–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Meadows DH (2008) Thinking in systems. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River JunctionGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blewitt J, Tilbury D (2014) Searching for resilience in sustainable development. Routledge, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gunderson LH, Holling C (2002) Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gotts NM (2007) Resilience, panarchy, and world-systems analysis. Ecol Soc 12(1):24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rose A (2004) Defining and measuring economic resilience to earthquakes. Disaster Prev Manag 13(4):307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rose A (2009) Economic resilience to disaster: Carri research report 8Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Neil Adger W, Adger WN (2000) Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Prog Hum Geogr 24(3):347–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kimhi S, Shomai M (2004) Community resilience and the impact of stress: adult response to Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon. J Commun Psychol 32(4):439–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maguire B, Hagan P (2007) Disasters and communities: understanding social resilience. Aust J Emerg Manag 22(2):16–20Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Longstaff PH, Armstrong N, Perrin K, Parker WM, Hidek MA (2010) Building resilient communities: a preliminary framework for assessment. Homel Secur Aff 4(3):1–23Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhou H, Wang J, Wan J, Jia H (2010) Resilience to natural hazards: a geographic perspective. Nat Hazards 53(1):21–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bruneau M, Chang S, Eguchi R, Lee G (2003) A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake Spectra 19:733–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Francis R, Bekera B (2014) A metric and frameworks for resilience analysis of engineered and infrastructure systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 121:90–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ouyang M, Dueñas-Osorio L, Min X (2012) A three-stage resilience analysis framework for urban infrastructure systems. Struct Saf 36–37:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    O’Rourke TD (2007) Critical infrastructure, interdependencies, and resilience. Bridg Link Eng Soc 37(1):22–29Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Omer M, Mostashari A, Lindeman U (2014) Resilience analysis of soft infrastructure systems. Proc Comput Sci 28:873–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Linkov I, Eisenberg DA, Plourde K, Seager TP, Allen J, Kott A (2013) Resilience metrics for cyber systems. Environ Syst Decis 33(4):471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rodriguez-Nikl T (2015) Linking disaster resilience and sustainability. Civ Eng Environ Syst 32(1–2):157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fiksel J (2007) Sustainability and resilience: toward a systems approach. IEEE Eng Manag Rev 35(3):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Xu L, Marinova D, Guo X (2015) Resilience thinking: a renewed system approach for sustainability science. Sustain Sci 10(1):123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bocchini P, Frangopol DM, Ummenhofer T, Zinke T (2014) Resilience and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure: toward a unified approach. J Infrastruct Syst 20(2):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pantelidou H, Nicholson D, Gaba A (2012) Sustainable geotechnics. Man Geotech Eng Inst Civ Eng 1:125–136Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Uda M, Kennedy C (2015) A framework for analysing neighbourhood resilience. Proc Inst Civ Eng Urban Des Plan 168(3):129–145Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Berte E, Panagopoulos T (2014) Enhancing city resilience to climate change by means of ecosystem services improvement: a SWOT analysis for the city of Faro, Portugal. Int J Urban Sustain Dev 6:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Montgomery M, Cornell S, Young K, Broyd T, Pocock D, Pearce O (2012) An innovative approach for improving infrastructure resilience. Proc ICE Civ Eng 165:27–32Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fox-Lent C, Bates ME, Linkov I (2015) A matrix approach to community resilience assessment: an illustrative case at Rockaway Peninsula. Environ Syst Decis 35(2):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shah J, Jefferson I, Hunt D (2014) Resilience assessment for geotechnical infrastructure assets. Infrastruct Asset Manag 1(4):95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Papadrakakis M, Fragiadakis M, Plevris V (2011) Resilience-driven disaster management of civil infrastructure. In: Congress. Cimne. Com, pp 25–28Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Comes T, Van De Walle B (2014) Measuring disaster resilience: The impact of hurricane sandy on critical infrastructure systems. In: ISCRAM 2014 conference proceedings of 11th international conference on information system for crisis and response management, pp 195–204Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Omer M (2013) Resilience of networked infrastructure systems: analysis and measurement. World Scientific Publishing Company, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cimellaro GP, Reinhorn AM, Bruneau M (2010) Framework for analytical quantification of disaster resilience. Eng Struct 32(11):3639–3649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tokgoz BE, Gheorghe AV (2013) Resilience quantification and its application to a residential building subject to hurricane winds. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 4(3):105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Henry D, Ramirez-Marquez JE (2012) Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 99:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rochas C, Kuzņecova T, Romagnoli F (2015) The concept of the system resilience within the infrastructure dimension: application to a Latvian case. J Clean Prod 88:358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zobel CW, Khansa L (2014) Characterizing multi-event disaster resilience. Comput Oper Res 42:83–94CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Venkittaraman A, Banerjee S (2014) Enhancing resilience of highway bridges through seismic retrofit. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 43(8):1173–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Banerjee S, Shinozuka M (2008) Mechanistic quantification of RC bridge damage states under earthquake through fragility analysis. Probab Eng Mech 23(1):12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dennemann KL (2009) Life-cycle cost-benefit (LCC-B) analysis for bridge seismic retrofits. Rice University, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shinozuka M, et al (2003) Resilience of integrated power and water systems. In: Seismic evaluation and retrofit of lifeline systems, pp 65–86Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    EPA (2015) Using the DPSIR framework to develop a conceptual model: technical support document. Epa/600/R-15/154Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gabrielsen P, Bosch P (2003) Environmental indicators: typology and use in reporting. EEA, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    EEA (1999) Environmental indicators: typology and overview. Eur Environ Agency 25(25):19Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    United Nations Division on Sustainable Development (1997) From theory to practice: indicators for sustainable development. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    OECD (1994) Environmental indicators: OECD Core Set, ParisGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Friend A, Rapport D (1991) Evolution of macro-information systems for sustainable development. Ecol Econ 3:59–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Walmsley JJ (2002) Framework for measuring sustainable development in catchment systems. Environ Manag 29(2):195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wei J, Zhao Y, Xu H, Yu H (2007) A framework for selecting indicators to assess the sustainable development of the natural heritage site. J Mt Sci 4(4):321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tsai H-T, Tzeng S-Y, Fu H-H, Wu JC-T (2009) Managing multinational sustainable development in the European Union based on the DPSIR framework. Afr J Bus Manag 3(11):727–735Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fistanić I (2006) Sustainable management of brackish karst spring Pantan (Croatia). Acta Carsologica 35(2):65–72Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Karageorgis AP, Kapsimalis V, Kontogianni A, Skourtos M, Turner KR, Salomons W (2006) Impact of 100-year human interventions on the deltaic coastal zone of the Inner Thermaikos Gulf (Greece): a DPSIR framework analysis. Environ Manag 38(2):304–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yoon SW, Lee DK, Won S, Kun D (2003) The development of the evaluation model of climate changes and air pollution for sustainability of cities in Korea. Landsc Urban Plan 63(3):145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Odermatt S (2004) Evaluation of mountain case studies by means of sustainability variables. Mt Res Dev 24(4):336–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bidone ED, Lacerda LD (2004) The use of DPSIR framework to evaluate sustainability in coastal areas. Case study: guanabara Bay basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Reg Environ Chang 4(1):5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ness B, Anderberg S, Olsson L (2010) Structuring problems in sustainability science: the multi-level DPSIR framework. Geoforum 41(3):479–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gari SR, Newton A, Icely JD (2015) A review of the application and evolution of the DPSIR framework with an emphasis on coastal social-ecological systems. Ocean Coast Manag 103:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schultz B (2002) Role of dams for irrigation, drainage, and flood control. Water Resour Dev. 18(1):147–162MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Church JA et al (2013) Sea level change. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1137–1216Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Engineering MPC, Jefferson PI, Hunt D, Chapman D (2012) Resilience of geotechnical assets supervisorsGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rogers CDF et al (2012) Resistance and resilience—paradigms for critical local infrastructure. Proc ICE Munic Eng 165:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vardon PJ (2015) Climatic influence on geotechnical infrastructure: a review. Environ Geotech 2(3):166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Xie F, Levinson D (2011) Evolving transportation networks. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pandey MD, Nathwani JS (2004) Life quality index for the estimation of societal willingness-to-pay for safety. Struct Saf 26(2):181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services (2012) Hazard identification and risk assessment for the province of OntarioGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bradley P, Yee S (2015) Using the DPSIR framework to develop a conceptual model: technical support document. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-15/154Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    RSMeans (2014) Heavy construction cost data. RSMeans, Norwell, MAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Geotechnical Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations