Desirability Analysis of Multiple Responses for Electrocoagulation Remediation of Paper Mill Wastewater by Using a Central Composite Design

Abstract

The present study illustrates the electrocoagulation remediation of paper mill wastewater for multiple response optimization. Multiple response optimization can be combined into one desirability function. All variables and responses varied for a unique global solution. The effect of basic electrocoagulation process variables pH (3–10), conductivity (3.15–10 mS/cm), electrode distance (1–2.5 cm) and current density (5–20 mA/cm2) on four response parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, color, total dissolved solids and total organic carbon has been analyzed experimentally and statistically. The global solution for these variables and responses obtained by software over a hundred design points. For unit desirability function variables conditions were pH 7.49, Conductivity 8.34 mS/cm, electrode distance 2.06 cm and current density 9.32 mA/cm2. In these global variable conditions, responses were observed to be COD 70.19%, Color 75.03%, TDS 70.69% and TOC 71.93%, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    H. Akcay, A.S. Anagun, Multi response optimization application on a manufacturing factory. Math ComputAppl 18(3), 531–538 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 22nd edn. (American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 2012).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bierbaum, S., & Oeller, H.J (2009) Cost Savings in the Ozone Treatment of Paper Mill Effluents Achieved By a Closed-Loop Ozone Control System. Ozone: Sci Eng, 31(6):454–460 https://doi.org/10.1080/01919510903323141.

  4. 4.

    S. Boulaadjoul, H. Zemmouri, Z. Bendjama, N. Drouiche, A novel use of Moringaoleifera seed powder in enhancing the primary treatment of paper mill effluent. Chemosphere 206, 142–149 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    K. Brahmi, W. Bouguerra, B. Hamrouni, E. Elalou, M. Loungou, Z. Tlili, Investigation of electrocoagulation reactor design parameters effect on the removal of cadmium from synthetic and phosphate industrial wastewater. Arab J Chem 12(8), 1848–1859 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.12.012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    H.M. Bui, Optimization of electrocoagulation of instant coffee production wastewater using the response surface methodology. Pol J ChemTechnol 19(2), 67–71 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1515/pjct-2017-0030

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chaudhari PK, Majumdar B, Choudhary R, Yadav DP, & Chand S (2010) Treatment of paper and pulp mill effluent by coagulation. Environmental Technology, ID:2602658. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330903486665.

  8. 8.

    CPCB (2019). Comprehensive industry document for large pulp and paper industry. COINDS/417/2018–2019.

  9. 9.

    G. Derringer, R. Suich, Simultaneous optimization of several response variables. QualTechnol 12, 214–219 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1080/00224065.1980.11980968

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    V. Gosu, S. Arora, V. Subbaramaiah, Simultaneous degradation of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds by catalytic wet-peroxidation process using box-behnken design. Environ Eng Res 25(4), 488–497 (2020). https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2019.159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    N. Jaafarzadeh, M. Omidinasab, F. Ghanbari, Combined electrocoagulation and UV-based sulfate radical oxidation process for treatment of pulp and paper wastewater. Process Saf Environ Prot 102, 462–472 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2016.04.019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    M. Kamali, Z. Khodaparast, Review on recent development on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 114, 326–342 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.05.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    R. Katal, H. Pahlavanzadeh, Influence of different combination of aluminum and iron electrode on electrocoagulation efficiency: Application of the treatment of paper mill wastewater. Desalination 265(1–3), 199–205 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.07.052

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    D.H. Lee, I.J. Jeong, K.J. Kim, A desirability function method for optimizing mean and variability of multiple responses using a posterior preference articulation approach. QualReliabEng 34(3), 360–376 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/qre.2258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    S. Meshram, C. Thakur, A. Soni, Fixed bed adsorption treatment of effluent of battery recycling unit to remove Pb(II) using steam activated granular activated carbon. J Serb ChemSoc 85(7), 953–965 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC191103015M

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    N. Pandey, C. Thakur, Study on treatment of paper mill wastewater by electrocoagulation and its sludge analysis. Chem Data Collect 27, 100390 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cdc.2020.100390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Punathil, S., Kumar, V., Thakur, C.K., & Ghosh, P. (2019). Taguchi optimization of COD removal by heterogeneous Fenton process using copper ferro spinel catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. RTD, Kinetic and Thermodynamic study. J Environ Chem Eng, 7(1), 102859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.102859.

  18. 18.

    B. Sadhukhan, N.K. Mondal, S. Chattoraj, Optimisation using central composite design (CCD) and the desirability function for sorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto Lemna major. Karbala Int J Mod Sci 2(3), 145–155 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kijoms.2016.03.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    P. Taylor, M.A. Aghdam, H. Kariminia, S. Safari, Removal of lignin, COD, and color from pulp and paper wastewater using electrocoagulation. Desalin Water Treatment (2015). https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1040461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    C. Thakur, V. Srivastava, I.D. Mall, A.D. Hiwarkar, Mechanistic study and multi-response optimization of the electrochemical treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. Clean: Soil, Air, Water 46(3), 1700624 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201700624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    C. Thakur, V.C. Srivastava, I.D. Mall, Aerobic degradation of petroleum refinery wastewater in sequential batch reactor. J Environ Sci Health Part A Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 49(12), 1436–1444 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2014.928557

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    G. Thompson, J. Swain, M. Kay, C.F. Forster, The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review. BioresTechnol 77(3), 275–286 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00060-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    D. Tibebel, Y. Kassa, A.N. Bhaskarwar, Treatment and characterization of phosphorus from synthetic wastewater using aluminum plate electrodes in the electrocoagulation process. BMC Chem 13, 107 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-019-0628-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    N. Tyagi, S. Mathur, D. Kumar, Electrocoagulation process for textile wastewater treatment in continuous upflow reactor. J SciInd Res 73, 195–198 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Y. Yavuz, A.S. Koparal, U.B. Ogutveren, Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrochemical methods. Desalination 258, 201–205 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.03.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Z. Zaroual, H. Chaair, A.H. Essadki, K. El Ass, M. Azzi, Optimizing the removal of trivalent chromium by electrocoagulation using experimental design. ChemEng J 148, 488–495 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.09.040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    S. Zodi, J.N. Louvet, C. Michon, O. Potier, M.N. Pons, F. Lapicque, J.P. Leclerc, Electrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: removal of non-biodegradable organic pollutaion and arsenic. Sep PurifTechnol 81(1), 62–68 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.07.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chandrakant Thakur.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pandey, N., Thakur, C., Ghosh, P. et al. Desirability Analysis of Multiple Responses for Electrocoagulation Remediation of Paper Mill Wastewater by Using a Central Composite Design. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. E (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40034-021-00205-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Desirability
  • Paper mill wastewater
  • Electrocoagulation
  • Total organic carbon
  • Multiple responses