Study of Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Cold and Hot Reciprocating Wire TIG Welding on AISI 1035 Carbon Steel


A novel Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding variant is introduced in this research. The authors studied the tungsten inert gas welding with different wire feeding system such as cold wire, hot wire, cold wire reciprocating, and hot wire reciprocating. Microstructural and mechanical properties of AISI 1035 carbon steel joints using different feeding system have been studied. The reciprocating filler wire system stirs the molten metal of the weld pool before it solidifies during the welding operation. The hot wire reciprocating tungsten inert gas welding has given the best results in terms of tensile properties and hardness of the joint. It also instigated the grain refinement in the weld zone which is attributed not mainly to dendrite fragmentation but impeding of the dendritic growth . The microstructure study of reciprocating wire feeding tungsten inert gas welded joints has shown the small size as well as uniform grains as compared to the conventional TIG welded joints. The reciprocating hot wire feeding tungsten inert gas welding gives a phenomenal improvement in the mechanical properties when compared with conventional TIG welding.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6



Tungsten inert gas welding


Continuous cold wire feeding


Reciprocating cold wire feeding


Continuous hot wire feeding


Reciprocating hot wire feeding


Vickers hardness number


Ultimate tensile strength


  1. 1.

    S. Kou, Welding metallurgy, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, pp. 3–33, 2003)

  2. 2.

    V.M. Vergara, Innovation of Equipment and Assessment of the Powder-Fed Transferred-Arc Plasma Process for Out of-Position Welding (Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, 2005)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A.F. Manz, Consumable electrode arcless electric working, United States Pat. US3122629A

  4. 4.

    M.J. Jose, S.S. Kumar, A. Sharma, Vibration assisted welding processes and their influence on quality of welds. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join. 21(4), 243–258 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    B.K. Henon, Advances in automatic hot wire GTAW (TIG) welding (Arc Machines Inc, 2011)

  6. 6.

    S.X. Lv, X.B. Tian, H.T. Wang, S.Q. Yang, Arc heating hot wire assisted arc welding technique for low resistance welding wire. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join. 12(5), 431–435 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    K. Balasubramanian, S. Raghavendran, V. Balusamy, Studies on the effect of mechanical vibration on the microstructure of the weld metal. Int. J. Technol. Eng. Syst. 2(3), 253–256 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    A.R. Hussein, N.A. Abdul Jail, A.R.A. Talib, Improvement of mechanical welding properties by using induced harmonic vibration. JApSc 11(2), 348–353 (2011)

  9. 9.

    J.S. Chen, Y. Lu, X.R. Li, Y.M. Zhang, Gas tungsten arc welding using an arcing wire. Weld. J. 91(10), 261–269 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mukesh Chandra.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tanmay, Chandra, M., Sharma, S. et al. Study of Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Cold and Hot Reciprocating Wire TIG Welding on AISI 1035 Carbon Steel. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. D (2021).

Download citation


  • Cold wire reciprocating
  • Hot wire reciprocating
  • TIG welding
  • Grain refinement
  • Tensile test