Detecting presence of proteins in a given sample is an essential part of diagnostics. The use of the avidin–biotin interaction is becoming an increasingly common method for the detection of proteins. Among avidin group, Streptavidin forms strongest non-covalent biological interaction with biotin. Therefore, it is stable in wide range of temperatures and exhibits similar binding as antigen–antibody binding. The strong interaction has led to a large number of diagnostic applications using Streptavidin–Biotin technology. Permittivity of Biotin–Streptavidin combination shows a frequency dependency in several dispersion regions like regions. Traditional and standard biological testing use immunoassay technology (ELISA) method use chemicals, and molecules which modifies or destroy properties of sensing bio molecule are cumbersome (several reaction steps) and time consuming. We present design and development of the Bio Sensors using RF. On the other-hand, application of conventional electronic devices which are available commercially to optical signals is a current day challenge. As the output of these devices is bipolar it is difficult to apply to optical signals which are always positive or zero. Hence, developing devices with binary output is of great importance. It would be very interesting to design and develop all-optical devices using ring lasers for communication and computing applications. The design and modeling of various all-optical devices such as Gyroscope and Modulators has been proposed.
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Azeemuddin, S. Radio frequency biosensing and all-optical devices. CSIT (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40012-020-00294-4