Identification of Duplicates in Ginger Germplasm Collection from Odisha Using Morphological and Molecular Characterization


In this investigation, sixty morphologically different ginger rhizomes, collected from an active germplasm conservatory of High Altitude Research Station, Odisha, India, were characterized using morphological traits and molecular markers. Larger variations in morphological characters were observed among the 45 ginger accessions out of 60 accessions. Out of 22 markers, 9 ISSR and 13 SSR markers used for analysis generated 42 and 160 polymorphic bands accounting to 55% and 63.29% of the total polymorphic bands, respectively; this depicts that SSR markers have better efficiency over ISSR markers. A high degree of variation is detected in multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of both morphological traits and combined molecular markers, in which the ginger accessions clustered into five and four distinct groups. This explains the existence of large variation in morphological traits despite markers used. Genetic distance between the accessions determined from Nei’s dissimilarity matrix was used to find out the potential duplicates within the accessions collected. Twenty-nine accessions having mean genetic distance (MGD) less than threshold MGD (average MGD) value 0.174 were considered as ‘potential duplicate’ accessions and were reduced to one group, and the rest 31 were considered distinct genotype out of 60 accessions. From this analysis, 48.3% of the collection were considered as potential duplicates and deemed to be redundant. However, careful elimination of redundant through molecular analysis supported with passport data will help to eradicate existing synonyms used by farmers and improve management practices of the ginger germplasm conservatory.

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The authors are grateful to the President and Dean for providing valuable infrastructure at Centre of Biotechnology, Siskha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, and Mr. P. Sial, in charge of HARS, Pottangi, for providing ginger germplasm.


Funding for this study was received from the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, Grant No. SERB/SR/SO/PS/41/2012.

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Correspondence to Enketeswara Subudhi.

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Significance Statement

This manuscript deals with morphological and genetic variability of the ginger accessions collected from gene bank of Odisha. The phenotypic and genotypic correlation is observed within accessions. The detection and elimination of duplicate ginger germplasm through combined ISSR and SSR marker analysis can help to improve the management practices of the ginger germplasm conservatory of Odisha.

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Das, A., Sahoo, R.K., Barik, D.P. et al. Identification of Duplicates in Ginger Germplasm Collection from Odisha Using Morphological and Molecular Characterization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci. 90, 1057–1066 (2020).

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  • Ginger
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Morphological variability
  • Genetic variability
  • Duplicates