Graphene-based nanomaterial system: a boon in the era of smart nanocarriers

Abstract

Background

Owing to its exceptional electronic, mechanical, thermal, as well as optoelectronic characteristics, graphene—a planar sheet with one-atom thickness and made of carbon atoms closely packed in quite a honeycomb crystal lattice—has already earned special consideration. The investigated characteristics or even applications of such a two-dimensional configuration of the structure of carbon have already created novel innovative opportunities in place of all of the future devices as well as nanosystems.

Area covered

These graphene systems have also been recognized as a potential drug-delivery carrier intended for target specific or even controlled drug delivery, which could be designed by utilizing various internal or external stimuli.

Expert opinion

This review predominantly focuses on graphene's synthesis and derivative, design of stimuli-responsive nanosystems, and applications in various fields. It is highlighted that with remarkable progress in graphene-related research, graphene's overall execution has a long road ahead to go.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Abdolahad M, Janmaleki M, Mohajerzadeh S, Akhavan O, Abbasi S (2013) Polyphenols attached graphene nanosheets for high efficiency NIR mediated photodestruction of cancer cells. Mater Sci Eng C 33:1498–1505

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmed F, Rodrigues DF (2013) Investigation of acute effects of graphene oxide on wastewater microbial community: a case study. J Hazard Mater 256:33–39

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Aitken RJ, Roman SD (2008) Antioxidant systems and oxidative stress in the testes. Oxid Med Cell Long 1:15–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Akca S, Foroughi A, Frochtzwajg D, Postma HWC (2011) Competing interactions in DNA assembly on graphene. PLoS ONE 6:e18442

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Alibolandi M, Mohammadi M, Taghdisi SM, Ramezani M, Abnous K (2013) Fabrication of aptamer decorated dextran coated nano-graphene oxide for targeted drug delivery. Carbohyd Polym 155(2017):218–229

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ali Boucetta H, Bitounis D, Raveendran-Nair R, Servant A, Van den Bossche J, Kostarelos K (2013) Purified graphene oxide dispersions lack in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo pathogenicity. Adv Healthcare Mater 2:433–441

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Almutairi FM (2019) Biopolymer nanoparticles: a review of prospects for application as carrier for therapeutics and diagnostics. Int J Pharm Res Allied Sci 8:25–35

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Puga AM, Concheiro A (2012) Nanostructures and nanostructured networks for smart drug delivery. Biomimetic Approach Biomater Dev 14:417–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Aristov VY, Urbanik G, Kummer K, Vyalikh DV, Molodtsova OV, Preobrajenski AB, Zakharov AA, Hess C, Hänke T, Buchner B, Vobornik I (2010) Graphene synthesis on cubic SiC/Si wafers. Perspectives for mass production of graphene-based electronic devices. Nano Lett 10:992–995

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Arya N, Arora A, Vasu KS, Sood AK, Katti DS (2013) Combination of single walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide with paclitaxel: a reactive oxygen species mediated synergism for treatment of lung cancer. Nanoscale 5:2818–2829

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ayazi H, Akhavan O, Raoufi M, Varshochian R, Motlagh NS, Atyabi F (2020) Graphene aerogel nanoparticles for in-situ loading/pH sensitive releasing anticancer drugs. Colloids Surf B 186:110712

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Babenko AY, Dideykin AT, Eidelman ED (2009) Graphene ladder: a model of field emission center on the surface of loose nanocarbon materials. Phys Solid State 51:435–439

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bai J, Zhong X, Jiang S, Huang Y, Duan X (2010) Graphene nanomesh. Nat Nanotech 5:190–194

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Bai J, Liu Y, Jiang X (2014) Multifunctional PEG-GO/CuS nanocomposites for near-infrared chemo-photothermal therapy. Biomater 35:5805–5813

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bai RG, Ninan N, Muthoosamy K, Manickam S (2018) Graphene: a versatile platform for nanotheranostics and tissue engineering. Prog Mater Sci 91:24–69

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN (2008) Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett 8:902–907

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Barui AK, Roy A, Das S, Bhamidipati K, Patra CR (2020) Therapeutic applications of graphene oxides in angiogenesis and cancers. In: Shukla AK (ed) Nanoparticles and their biomedical applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 147–189

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bian X, Song ZL, Qian Y, Gao W, Cheng ZQ, Chen L, Liang H, Ding D, Nie XK, Chen Z, Tan W (2014) Fabrication of Graphene-Isolated-Au-nanocrystal nanostructures for multimodal cell imaging and photothermal-enhanced chemotherapy. Sci Rep 4:6093

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Bekyarova E, Itkis ME, Ramesh P, Berger C, Sprinkle M, de Heer WA, Haddon RC (2009) Chemical modification of epitaxial graphene: spontaneous grafting of aryl groups. J Am Chem Soc 131:1336–1337

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bhaviripudi S, Jia X, Dresselhaus MS, Kong J (2010) Role of kinetic factors in chemical vapor deposition synthesis of uniform large area graphene using copper catalyst. Nano Lett 10:4128–4133

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Bhuyan MS, Uddin MN, Islam MM, Bipasha FA, Hossain SS (2016) Synthesis of graphene. Int Nano Lett 6:65–83

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Bourlinos AB, Gournis D, Petridis D, Szabo T, Szeri A, Dekany I (2003) Graphite oxide: chemical reduction to graphite and surface modification with primary aliphatic amines and amino acids. Langmuir 19:6050–6055

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Cai M, Thorpe D, Adamson DH, Schniepp HC (2012) Methods of graphite exfoliation. J Mater Chem 22:24992–25002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cao Y, Dong H, Yang Z, Zhong X, Chen Y, Dai W, Zhang X (2016) Aptamer-conjugated graphene quantum dots/porphyrin derivative theranostic agent for intracellular cancer-related microRNA detection and fluorescence-guided photothermal/photodynamic synergetic therapy. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9:159–166

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Chakrabarti A, Lu J, Skrabutenas JC, Xu T, Xiao Z, Maguire JA, Hosmane NS (2011) Conversion of carbon dioxide to few-layer graphene. J Mater Chem 21:9491–9493

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Chang YC, Yen CC, Tsai HC, Chen TC, Yang CM, Chen CH, Woon WY (2020) Characteristics of graphene grown through low power capacitive coupled radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Carbon 159:570–578

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Chaste J, Saadani A, Jaffre A, Madouri A, Alvarez J, Pierucci D, Aziza ZB, Ouerghi A (2017) Nanostructures in suspended mono-and bilayer epitaxial graphene. Carbon 125:162–167

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Chaudhari NS, Pandey AP, Patil PO, Tekade AR, Bari SB, Deshmukh PK (2014) Graphene oxide based magnetic nanocomposites for efficient treatment of breast cancer. Mater Sci Eng C 37:278–285

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Chawda N, Basu M, Majumdar D, Poddar R, Mahapatra SK, Banerjee I (2019) Engineering of gadolinium-decorated graphene oxide nanosheets for multimodal bioimaging and drug delivery. ACS Omega 4:12470–12479

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Chen ML, He YJ, Chen XW, Wang JH (2013) Quantum-dot-conjugated graphene as a probe for simultaneous cancer-targeted fluorescent imaging, tracking, and monitoring drug delivery. Bioconj chem 24:387–397

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Chen GY, Chen CL, Tuan HY, Yuan PX, Li KC, Yang HJ, Hu YC (2014a) Graphene oxide triggers toll-like receptors/autophagy responses in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Adv Healthcare Mater 3:1486–1495

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Chen H, Wang Z, Zong S, Wu L, Chen P, Zhu D, Wang C, Xu S, Cui Y (2014b) SERS-fluorescence monitored drug release of a redox-responsive nanocarrier based on graphene oxide in tumor cells. ACS Appl Mater Inter 6:17526–17533

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Chen YW, Su YL, Hu SH, Chen SY (2016) Functionalized graphene nanocomposites for enhancing photothermal therapy in tumor treatment. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 105:190–204

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Chen L, Wang C, Li H, Qu X, Yang S-T, Chang X-L (2017) Bioaccumulation and toxicity of 13C-skeleton labeled graphene oxide in wheat. Environ Sci Tech 51:10146–10153

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Cheon YA, Bae JH, Chung BG (2016) Reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for chemo-photothermal therapy. Langmuir 32:2731–2736

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Choi W, Lee JW (2016) Graphene: synthesis and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  37. Choi J, Kim KJ, Kim B, Lee H, Kim S (2009) Covalent functionalization of epitaxial graphene by azidotrimethylsilane. J PhysChem C 113:9433–9435

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Choucair M, Thordarson P, Stride JA (2009) Gram-scale production of graphene based on solvothermal synthesis and sonication. Nat Nanotechnol 4:30–33

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Chowdhury SM, Surhland C, Sanchez Z, Chaudhary P, Kumar MS, Lee S, Peña LA, Waring M, Sitharaman B, Naidu M (2015) Graphene nanoribbons as a drug delivery agent for lucanthone mediated therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. Nanomed Nanotech Bio Med 11:109–118

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Close DM, Xu T, Sayler GS, Ripp S (2011) In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI): noninvasive visualization and interrogation of biological processes in living animals. Sensors 11:180–206

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Cornelissen B, Able S, Kersemans V, Waghorn PA, Myhra S, Jurkshat K, Crossley A, Vallis KA (2013) Nanographene oxide-based radio immune constructs for in vivo targeting and SPECT imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Biomater 34:1146–1154

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Daniyal M, Liu B, Wang W (2019) Comprehensive review on graphene oxide for use in drug delivery system. Curr Med Chem 26:1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Dasmahapatra AK, Dasari TP, Tchounwou PB (2018) Graphene-based nanomaterials toxicity in fish. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 247:1–58

    Google Scholar 

  44. Dembereldorj U, Choi SY, Ganbold EO, Song NW, Kim D, Choo J, Lee SY, Kim S, Joo SW (2014) Gold nanorod-assembled PEGylated graphene-oxide nanocomposites for photothermal cancer therapy. Photochem Photobio 90:659–666

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Dhanavel S, Revathy TA, Sivaranjani T, Sivakumar K, Palani P, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2020) 5-Fluorouracil and curcumin co-encapsulated chitosan/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites against human colon cancer cell lines. Polym Bull 77:213–233

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Dideikin AT, Vul AY (2019) Graphene oxide and derivatives: the place in graphene family. Front Phys 6:149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Ding Z, Zhang Z, Ma H, Chen Y (2014) In vitro hemocompatibility and toxic mechanism of graphene oxide on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and serum albumin. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:19797–19807

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Ebrahimi F, Heidari E (2015) A review on modeling, synthesis, and properties of graphene. Graphene - new trends and developments, InTech Rijeka

    Google Scholar 

  49. Edwards RS, Coleman KS (2013) Graphene synthesis: relationship to applications. Nanoscale 5:38–51

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Escudero ML, Llorente I, Pérez-Maceda BT, San José-Pinilla S, Sánchez-López L, Lozano RM, Aguado-Henche S, de Arriba CC, Alobera-Gracia MA, García-Alonso MC (2020) Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on CoCr biomedical alloy: characterization, macrophage biocompatibility and hemocompatibility in rats with graphene and graphene oxide. Mater Sci Eng C 109:110522

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Fan X, Jiao G, Zhao W, Jin P, Li X (2013) Magnetic Fe3O4graphene composites as targeted drug nanocarriers for pH-activated release. Nanoscale 5:1143–1152

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Fang H, Luo C, Liu S, Zhou M, Zeng Y, Hou J, Chen L, Mou S, Sun J, Wang Z (2020) A biocompatible vascularized graphene oxide (GO)-collagen chamber with osteoinductive and anti-fibrosis effects promotes bone regeneration in vivo. Theranostics 10:2759

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Farani MR, Khadiv-Parsi P, Riazi GH, Ardestani MS, Rad HS (2020) PEGylation of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposite: assessment of release of doxorubicin, magnetically targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy. Appl Nanosci 3:1–3

    Google Scholar 

  54. Feng L, Wu L, Qu X (2013a) New horizons for diagnostics and therapeutic applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Adv Mater 25:168–186

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Feng L, Yang X, Shi X, Tan X, Peng R, Wang J, Liu Z (2013b) Polyethylene glycol and polyethylenimine dual-functionalized nano-graphene oxide for photothermally enhanced gene delivery. Small 9:1989–1997

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Feng L, Li K, Shi X, Gao M, Liu J, Liu Z (2014) Smart pH-responsive nanocarriers based on nano-graphene oxide for combined chemo-and photothermal therapy overcoming drug resistance. Adv Healthcare Mater 3:1261–1271

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Fenoy GE, Marmisollé WA, Azzaroni O, Knoll W (2020) Acetylcholine biosensor based on the electrochemical functionalization of graphene field-effect transistors. Biosens Bioelectron 148:111796

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Foroushani MS, Shervedani RK, Kefayat A, Torabi M, Ghahremani F, Yaghoobi F (2019) Folate-graphene chelate manganese nanoparticles as a theranostic system for colon cancer MR imaging and drug delivery: in-vivo examinations. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 54:101223

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Gao Y, Zou X, Zhao JX, Li Y, Su X (2013) Graphene oxide-based magnetic fluorescent hybrids for drug delivery and cellular imaging. Colloids Surf B 112:128–133

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Ge J, Lan M, Zhou B, Liu W, Guo L, Wang H, Jia Q, Niu G, Huang X, Zhou H, Meng X (2014) A graphene quantum dots photodynamic therapy agent with high singlet oxygen generation. Nat Commun 5:4596

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Geim AK, Kim P (2008) Carbon wonderland. Sci Am 298:90–97

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Georgakilas V (2014) Functionalization of graphene. Wiley, Chichester

    Google Scholar 

  63. Georgakilas V, Bourlinos AB, Zboril R, Steriotis TA, Dallas P, Stubos AK, Trapalis C (2010) Organic functionalization of graphenes. ChemCommun 46:1766–1768

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Georgakilas V, Tiwari JN, Kemp KC, Perman JA, Bourlinos AB, Kim KS, Zboril R (2016) Noncovalent functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide for energy materials, biosensing, catalytic, and biomedical applications. Chem Rev 116:5464–5519

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Ghorbani F, Zamanian A, Aidun A (2019) Bioinspired polydopamine coating-assisted electrospun polyurethane-graphene oxide nanofibers for bone tissue engineering application. J Appl Polym Sci 136:47656

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Gollavelli G, Ling YC (2014) Magnetic and fluorescent graphene for dual modal imaging and single light induced photothermal and photodynamic therapy of cancer cells. Biomater 35:4499–4507

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Gomez De Arco L, Zhang Y, Schlenker CW, Ryu K, Thompson ME, Zhou C (2010) Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics. ACS Nano 4:2865–2873

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Gonçalves G, Vila M, Portolés MT, Vallet-Regi M, Gracio J, Marques PAA (2013) Nano-graphene oxide: a potential multifunctional platform for cancer therapy. Adv Healthcare Mater 2:1072–1090

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Griep MH, Demaree JD, Cole DP, Henry TC, Karna SP (2020) Protein-mediated synthesis of Au nanocluster decorated reduced graphene oxide: a multifunctional hybrid nano-bio platform. Plasmonics. 15:1–7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Haldane FDM (1988) Model for a quantum Hall effect without Landau levels: condensed-matter realization of the ‘parity anomaly.’ Phys Rev Lett 61:2015–2018

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. He X, Li J, An S, Jiang C (2013) pH-sensitive drug-delivery systems for tumor targeting. Ther Deliv 4:1499–1510

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Hong H, Yang K, Zhang Y, Engle JW, Feng L, Yang Y, Nayak TR, Goel S, Bean J, Theuer CP, Barnhart TE (2012) In vivo targeting and imaging of tumor vasculature with radiolabeled, antibody-conjugated nanographene. ACS Nano 6:2361–2370

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Hou C, Quan H, Duan Y, Zhang Q, Wang H, Li Y (2013) Facile synthesis of water-dispersible Cu2O nanocrystal-reduced graphene oxide hybrid as a promising cancer therapeutic agent. Nanoscale 5:1227–1232

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Hu W, Peng C, Luo W, Lv M, Li X, Li D, Huang Q, Fan C (2010) Graphene-based antibacterial paper. ACS Nano 4:4317–4323

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Hu H, Yu J, Li Y, Zhao J, Dong H (2012a) Engineering of a novel pluronic F127/graphene nanohybrid for pH responsive drug delivery. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 100:141–148

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Hu SH, Chen YW, Hung WT, Chen IW, Chen SY (2012b) Quantum-dot-tagged reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for bright fluorescence bioimaging and photothermal therapy monitored in situ. Adv Mater 24:1748–1754

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Huang P, Xu C, Lin J, Wang C, Wang X, Zhang C, Zhou X, Guo S, Cui D (2011a) Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide loaded with photosensitizers for targeting photodynamic therapy. Theranostics 1:240–250

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Huang X, Yin Z, Wu S, Qi X, He Q, Zhang Q, Yan Q, Boey F, Zhang H (2011b) Graphene-based materials: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications. Small 7:1876–1902

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Jia L, Zhou Y, Wu K, Feng Q, Wang C, He P (2020) Acetylcholinesterase modified AuNPs-MoS2-rGO/PI flexible film biosensor: towards efficient fabrication and application in paraoxon detection. Bioelectrochem 131:107392

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Jiang T, Sun W, Zhu Q, Burns NA, Khan SA, Mo R, Gu Z (2015) Furin-mediated sequential delivery of anticancer cytokine and small-molecule drug shuttled by graphene. Adv Mater 27:1021–1028

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Jiao L, Zhang L, Wang X, Diankov G, Dai H (2009) Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes. Nature 458:877

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Jin R, Ji X, Yang Y, Wang H, Cao A (2013a) Self-assembled graphene–dextran nanohybrid for killing drug-resistant cancer cells. ACS Appl Mater Inter 5:7181–7189

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Jin Y, Wang J, Ke H, Wang S, Dai Z (2013b) Graphene oxide modified PLA microcapsules containing gold nanoparticles for ultrasonic/CT bimodal imaging guided photothermal tumor therapy. Biomater 34:4794–4802

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Joseph D, Seo S, Williams DR, Geckeler KE (2014) Double-stranded DNA-graphene hybrid: preparation and anti-proliferative activity. ACS Appl Mater Inter 6:3347–3356

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Kakran M, Sahoo G, Bao H, Pan Y, Li L (2011) Functionalized graphene oxide as nanocarrier for loading and delivery of ellagic acid. Curr Med Chem 18:4503–4512

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Kang K, Abdula D, Cahill DG, Shim M (2010) Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Phys Rev B 81:165405

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Kang S, Kim KM, Son Y, Mhin S, Ryu JH, Shim KB, Lee B, Han H, Song T (2019) Graphene oxide quantum dots derived from coal for bioimaging: facile and green approach. Sci Rep 9:1–7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Karimi M, Ghasemi A, Zangabad PS, Rahighi R, Basri SM, Mirshekari H, Amiri M, Pishabad ZS, Aslani A, Bozorgomid M, Ghosh D (2016) Smart micro/nanoparticles in stimulus-responsive drug/gene delivery systems. Chem Soc Rev 45:1457–1501

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Karki N, Rana A, Tiwari H, Negi P, Sahoo NG (2020) Theranostics application of graphene-based materials in cancer imaging. Targeting and Treatment. InTumor Progression and Metastasis, IntechOpen

    Google Scholar 

  90. Katsnelson MI (2007) Graphene: carbon in two dimensions. Mater Today 10:20–27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Kavitha T, Abdi SI, Park SY (2013) pH-sensitive nanocargo based on smart polymer functionalized graphene oxide for site-specific drug delivery. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:5176–5185

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Kavitha T, Kang IK, Park SY (2014) Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) grown on nanographene oxide as an effective nanocargo for drug delivery. Collloid Surf B 115:37–45

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Keeley GP, O’Neill A, McEvoy N, Peltekis N, Coleman JN, Duesberg GS (2010) Electrochemical ascorbic acid sensor based on DMF-exfoliated graphene. J Mater Chem 20:7864–7869

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Khan F, Pattanayak SK, Verma PR, Dewangan PK (2020) Biofabrication of graphene QDs as a fluorescent nanosensor for detection of toxic and heavy metals in biological and environmental samples. In: Smart biosensors in medical care, pp. 139–152.

  95. Khatamian M, Divband B, Farahmand-Zahed F (2016) Synthesis and characterization of Zinc (II)-loaded Zeolite/Graphene oxide nanocomposite as a new drug carrier. Mater Sci Eng C. 66:251–258

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Kim H, Namgung R, Singha K, Oh IK, Kim WJ (2011) Graphene oxide–polyethyleniminenanoconstruct as a gene delivery vector and bioimaging tool. Bioconjug Chem 22:2558–2567

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Kim H, Lee D, Kim J, Kim TI, Kim WJ (2013) Photothermally triggered cytosolic drug delivery via endosome disruption using a functionalized reduced graphene oxide. ACS Nano 7:6735–6746

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Kissel P, Erni R, Schweizer WB, Rossell MD, King BT, Bauer T, Götzinger S, Schlüter AD, Sakamoto J (2012) A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis. J Nat Chem 4:287–291

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Kishore D, Kundu S, Kayastha AM (2012) Thermal, chemical and pH induced denaturation of a multimeric β-galactosidase reveals multiple unfolding pathways. PLoS ONE 7:e50380

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Kochmann S, Hirsch T, Wolfbeis OS (2012) Graphenes in chemical sensors and biosensors. Trends Anal Chem 39:87–113

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Krishnamoorthy K, Kim GS, Kim SJ (2013) Graphene nanosheets: ultrasound assisted synthesis and characterization. Ultrason Sonochem 20:644–649

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Kuila T, Bose S, Hong CE, Uddin ME, Khanra P, Kim NH, Lee JH (2011) Preparation of functionalized graphene/linear low density polyethylene composites by a solution mixing method. Carbon 49:1033–1037

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Lamg B (1975) A LEED study of the deposition of carbon on platinum crystal surfaces. Surf Sci 53:317–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Lammel T, Boisseaux P, Fernandez-Cruz ML, Navas JM (2013) Internalization and cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and carboxyl graphene nanoplatelets in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep G2. Part FibreToxicol 10:27

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. Lee C, Wei X, Kysar JW, Hone J (2008) Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science 321(5887):385–388

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  106. Li JL, Hou XL, Bao HC, Sun L, Tang B, Wang JF, Wang XG, Gu M (2014) Graphene oxide nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal cancer cell therapy under the irradiation of a femtosecond laser beam. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 102:2181–2188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Li Y, Wang Y, Tu L, Chen D, Luo Z, Liu D, Miao Z, Feng G, Qing L, Wang S (2016) Sub-acute toxicity study of graphene oxide in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:1149

    PubMed Central  Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. Li X, Kim J, Yoon J, Chen X (2017) Cancer-associated, stimuli-driven, turn on theranostics for multimodality imaging and therapy. Adv Mater 29:1606857

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Li D, Hu X, Zhang S (2019) Biodegradation of graphene-based nanomaterials in blood plasma affects their biocompatibility, drug delivery, targeted organs and antitumor ability. Biomaterials 202:12–25

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Liao KH, Lin YS, Macosko CW, Haynes CL (2011) Cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene in human erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:2607–2615

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Lim JY, Mubarak NM, Abdullah EC, Nizamuddin S, Khalid M, Inamuddin (2018) Recent trends in the synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide based nanomaterials for removal of heavy metals—a review. J Ind Eng Chem 66:29–44

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Liu Z, Robinson JT, Sun X, Dai H (2008) PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs. J Am Chem Soc 130:10876–10877

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Liu G, Shen H, Mao J, Zhang L, Jiang Z, Sun T, Lan Q, Zhang Z (2013a) Transferrin modified graphene oxide for glioma-targeted drug delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluations. ACS Appl Mater Inter 5:6909–6914

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Liu J, Cui L, Losic D (2013b) Graphene and graphene oxide as new nanocarriers for drug delivery applications. Acta Biomater 9:9243–9257

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Liu X, Ma D, Tang H, Tan L, Xie Q, Zhang Y, Ma M, Yao S (2014) Polyamidoamine dendrimer and oleic acid-functionalized graphene as biocompatible and efficient gene delivery vectors. ACS Appl Mater Inter 6:8173–8183

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Liu Y, Han W, Xu Z, Fan W, Peng W, Luo S (2018) Comparative toxicity of pristine graphene oxide and its carboxyl, imidazole or polyethylene glycol functionalized products to Daphnia magna: a two generation study. Environ Pollut 237:218–227

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Liu S, Zhou C, Mou S, Li J, Zhou M, Zeng Y, Luo C, Sun J, Wang Z, Xu W (2019a) Biocompatible graphene oxide-collagen composite aerogel for enhanced stiffness and in situ bone regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C 105:110137

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Liu T, Li J, Wu X, Zhang S, Lu Z, Li G, Li J, Chen S (2019b) Transferrin-targeting redox hyperbranched poly (amido amine)-functionalized graphene oxide for sensitized chemotherapy combined with gene therapy to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Drug Deliv. 26:744–55

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. López-Gómez M, Malmierca E, de Górgolas M, Casado E (2013) Cancer in developing countries: the next most preventable pandemic. The global problem of cancer. Crit Rev Oncol 88:117–122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. LópezTenorio D, Valencia CH, Valencia C, Zuluaga F, Valencia ME, Mina JH, Grande Tovar CD (2019) Evaluation of the biocompatibility of CS-graphene oxide compounds in vivo. Int J Mol Sci 20:1572

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  121. Lu YJ, Yang HW, Hung SC, Huang CY, Li SM, Ma CC, Chen PY, Tsai HC, Wei KC, Chen JP (2012) Improving thermal stability and efficacy of BCNU in treating glioma cells using PAA-functionalized graphene oxide. Int J Nanomed 7:1737–1747

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  122. Lu T, Nong Z, Wei L, Wei M, Li G, Wu N, Liu C, Tang B, Qin Q, Li X, Meng F (2020) Preparation and anti-cancer activity of transferrin/folic acid double-targeted graphene oxide drug delivery system. J Biomater Appl 0885328220913976

  123. Ma R, Wang Y, Qi H, Shi C, Wei G, Xiao L, Huang Z, Liu S, Yu H, Teng C, Liu H (2019) Nanocomposite sponges of sodium alginate/graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol as potential wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Compos B Eng 167:396–405

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Mahanta NK, Abramson AR (2012) Thermal conductivity of graphene and graphene oxide nanoplatelets. In: 13th intersociety conference on thermal and thermomechanical phenomena in electronic systems, pp. 1–6

  125. Mainardes RM, Silva LP (2004) Drug delivery systems: past, present, and future. Curr Drug Targets 5:449–455

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Maity AR, Chakraborty A, Mondal A, Jana NR (2014) Carbohydrate coated, folate functionalized colloidal graphene as a nanocarrier for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Nanoscale 6:2752–2758

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Manjunatha B, Park SH, Kim K, Kundapur RR, Lee SJ (2018) In vivo toxicity evaluation of pristine graphene in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:12821–12829

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Mao LF, Wang J, Li L, Ning H, Hu C (2017) Modeling of spectral shift in Raman spectroscopy, photo-and electro-luminescence induced by electric field tuning of graphene related electronic devices. Carbon 119:446–452

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Martín C, Kostarelos K, Prato M, Bianco A (2019) Biocompatibility and biodegradability of 2D materials: graphene and beyond. Chem Commun 55:5540–5546

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Matsuo Y, Sakai Y, Fukutsuka T, Sugie Y (2007) Preparation of pillared carbons by pyrolysis of silylated graphite oxide. Chem Lett 36:1050–1051

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Mauro N, Scialabba C, Agnello S, Cavallaro G, Giammona G (2020) Folic acid-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets via plasma etching as a platform to combine NIR anticancer phototherapy and targeted drug delivery. Mater Sci Eng C 107:110201

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. McClure JW (1956) Diamagnetism of graphite. Phys Rev 104:666–671

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Mendes RG, Bachmatiuk A, Büchner B, Cuniberti G, Rümmeli MH (2013) Carbon nanostructures as multi-functional drug delivery platforms. J Mater Chem B 1:401–428

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Mendonça MC, Soares ES, De Jesus MB, Ceragioli HJ, Batista AG, Nyúl-Tóth Á, Molnár J, Wilhelm I, Maróstica MR Jr, Krizbai I, da Cruz-Hofling MA (2016) PEGylation of reduced graphene oxide induces toxicity in cells of the blood–brain barrier: an in vitro and in vivo study. Mol Pharma 13:3913–3924

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  135. Miao W, Shim G, Kang CM, Lee S, Choe YS, Choi HG, Oh YK (2013a) Cholesteryl hyaluronic acid-coated, reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for anti-cancer drug delivery. Biomater 34:9638–9647

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Miao W, Shim G, Lee S, Lee S, Choe YS, Oh YK (2013b) Safety and tumor tissue accumulation of pegylated graphene oxide nanosheets for co-delivery of anticancer drug and photosensitizer. Biomater 34:3402–3410

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Misra SK, Kondaiah P, Bhattacharya S, Rao CN (2012) Graphene as a nanocarrier for tamoxifen induces apoptosis in transformed cancer cell lines of different origins. Small 8:131–143

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  138. Mkhoyan KA (2009) Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide. Nano Lett 9:1058–1063

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Mohanraj J, Durgalakshmi D, Rakkesh RA, Balakumar S, Rajendran S, Karimi-Maleh H (2020) Facile synthesis of paper based graphene electrodes for point of care devices: a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) biosensor. J Colloid Interface Sci 566:463–472

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  140. Mo R, Jiang T, Sun W, Gu Z (2015) ATP-responsive DNA-graphene hybrid nanoaggregates for anticancer drug delivery. Biomater 50:67–74

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Modi A, Verma SK, Bellare J (2020) Surface-functionalized poly (ether sulfone) composite hollow fiber membranes with improved biocompatibility and uremic toxins clearance for bioartificial kidney application. ACS Appl Bio Mater 3:1589–1597

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Nakayama-Ratchford N, Bangsaruntip S, Sun X, Welsher K, Dai H (2007) Noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes by fluorescein–polyethylene glycol: supramolecular conjugates with pH-dependent absorbance and fluorescence. J Am Chem Soc 129:2448–2449

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Nasrollahi F, Koh YR, Chen P, Varshosaz J, Khodadadi AA, Lim S (2019) Targeting graphene quantum dots to epidermal growth factor receptor for delivery of cisplatin and cellular imaging. Mater Sci Eng C 94:247–257

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  144. Nejabat M, Charbgoo F, Ramezani M (2017) Graphene as multifunctional delivery platform in cancer therapy. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 105:2355–2367

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Nergiz SZ, Gandra N, Tadepalli S, Singamaneni S (2014) Multifunctional hybrid nanopatches of graphene oxide and gold nanostars for ultraefficient photothermal cancer therapy. ACS Appl Mater Inter 6:16395–16402

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  146. Nguyen KT, Zhao Y (2014) Integrated graphene/nanoparticle hybrids for biological and electronic applications. Nanoscale 6:6245–6266

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  147. Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Novoselov KS, Jiang D, Schedin F, Booth TJ, Khotkevich VV, Morozov SV, Geim AK (2005) Two-dimensional atomic crystals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:10451–10453

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  149. Orecchioni M, Cabizza R, Bianco A, Delogu LG (2015) Graphene as cancer theranostic tool: progress and future challenges. Theranostics 5:710

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Palmieri V, Perini G, De Spirito M, Papi M (2019) Graphene oxide touches blood: in vivo interactions of bio-coronated 2D materials. Nanoscale Horizons 4:273–290

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Pan D, Wang S, Zhao B, Wu M, Zhang H, Wang Y, Jiao Z (2009) Li storage properties of disordered graphene nanosheets. Chem Mater 21:3136–3142

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  152. Park MJ, Lee JK, Lee BS, Lee YW, Choi IS, Lee SG (2006) Covalent modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with imidazolium based ionic liquids: effect of anions on solubility. Chem Mater 18:1546–1551

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  153. Park S, Dikin DA, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2009) Graphene oxide sheets chemically cross-linked by polyallylamine. J Phys Chem C 113:15801–15804

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  154. Parvez K, Li R, Puniredd SR, Hernandez Y, Hinkel F, Wang S, Feng X, Müllen K (2013) Electrochemically exfoliated graphene as solution-processable, highly conductive electrodes for organic electronics. ACS Nano 7:3598–3606

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  155. Patel CS, Lee S, Lalwani G, Suhrland C, Chowdhury MS, Sitharaman B (2016) Graphene-based platforms for cancer therapeutics. 101 Ther Deliv 7:101–116

  156. Prasad KE, Das B, Maitra U, Ramamurty U, Rao CN (2009) Extraordinary synergy in the mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites reinforced with 2 nanocarbons. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:13186–13189

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  157. Qin XC, Guo ZY, Liu ZM, Zhang W, Wan MM, Yang BW (2013) Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide for cancer targeted chemo-photothermal therapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 120:156–162

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  158. Qiu B, Ruan X (2012) Reduction of spectral phonon relaxation times from suspended to supported graphene. Appl Phys Lett 100:193101

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  159. Quintana M, Spyrou K, Grzelczak M, Browne WR, Rudolf P, Prato M (2010) Functionalization of graphene via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. ACS Nano 4:3527–3533

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  160. Rabiee N, Kiani M, Bagherzadeh M, Rabiee M, Ahmadi S (2019) An introduction to drug/gene delivery systems. Morgan Claypool, San Rafael

    Google Scholar 

  161. Rahman MS, Rikta KA, Abdulrazak LF, Anower MS (2020) Enhanced performance of SnSe-Graphene hybrid photonic surface plasmon refractive sensor for biosensing applications. Photonics Nanostruct Fundam Appl 39:100779

    Article  Google Scholar 

  162. Rakhshaei R, Namazi H, Hamishehkar H, Rahimi M (2019) Graphene quantum dot cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite hydrogel for pH-sensitive oral anticancer drug delivery with potential bioimaging properties. Int J Biol Macromol

  163. Rao CN, Sood AK, Voggu R, Subrahmanyam KS (2010) Some novel attributes of graphene. J Phys Chem Lett 1:572–580

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Ritter KA, Lyding JW (2009) The influence of edge structure on the electronic properties of graphene quantum dots and nanoribbons. Nat Mater 8:235–242

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  165. Robinson JT, Tabakman SM, Liang Y, Wang H, Sanchez Casalongue H, Vinh D, Dai H (2011) Ultrasmall reduced graphene oxide with high near-infrared absorbance for photothermal therapy. J Am Chem Soc 133:6825–6831

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  166. Rong P, Yang K, Srivastan A, Kiesewetter DO, Yue X, Wang F, Nie L, Bhirde A, Wang Z, Liu Z, Niu G (2014) Photosensitizer loaded nano-graphene for multimodality imaging guided tumor photodynamic therapy. Theranostics 4:229

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  167. Rozploch F, Patyk J, Stankowski J (2007) Graphenes bonding forces in graphite. Acta Phys Pol A 112:557–562

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  168. Roushani M, Valipour A, Bahrami M (2019) The potentiality of graphene quantum dots functionalized by nitrogen and thiol-doped (GQDs-NS) to stabilize the antibodies in designing of human chorionic gonadotropin immunosensor. Nano Chem Res 4:20–26

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  169. Saeed LM, Mahmood M, Pyrek SJ, Fahmi T, Xu Y, Mustafa T, Nima ZA, Bratton SM, Casciano D, Dervishi E, Radominska-Pandya A (2014) Single-walled carbon nanotube and graphene nanodelivery of gambogic acid increases its cytotoxicity in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. J Appl Toxic 34:1188–1199

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  170. Sahu A, Choi WI, Lee JH, Tae G (2013) Graphene oxide mediated delivery of methylene blue for combined photodynamic and photothermal therapy. Biomater 34:6239–6248

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  171. Santos CM, Mangadlao J, Ahmed F, Leon A, Advincula RC, Rodrigues DF (2012) Graphene nanocomposite for biomedical applications: fabrication, antimicrobial and cytotoxic investigations. Nanotech 23:395101

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  172. Santos CI, Rodríguez-Pérez L, Gonçalves G, Pinto SN, Melle-Franco M, Marques PA, Faustino MA, Herranz MÁ, Martin N, Neves MG, Martinho JM (2020) Novel hybrids based on graphene quantum dots covalently linked to glycol corroles for multiphoton bioimaging. Carbon

  173. Sarma SD, Adam S, Hwang EH, Rossi E (2011) Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene. Rev Mod Phys 83:407–470

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  174. Schinwald A, Murphy FA, Jones A, MacNee W, Donaldson K (2012) Graphene-based nanoplatelets: a new risk to the respiratory system as a consequence of their unusual aerodynamic properties. ACS Nano 6:736–746

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  175. Schroer ZS, Wu Y, Xing Y, Wu X, Liu X, Wang X, Pino OG, Zhou C, Combs C, Pu Q, Wu M (2019) Nitrogen–sulfur-doped graphene quantum dots with metal ion-resistance for bioimaging. ACS Appl Nano Mater 2:6858–6865

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  176. Semenoff GW (1984) Condensed-matter simulation of a three-dimensional anomaly. Phys Rev Lett 53:2449–2452

    Article  Google Scholar 

  177. Seo HI, Cheon YA, Chung BG (2016) Graphene and thermo-responsive polymeric nanocomposites for therapeutic applications. Biomed Eng Lett 6:10–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  178. Sethi J, Van Bulck M, Suhail A, Safarzadeh M, Perez-Castillo A, Pan G (2020) A label-free biosensor based on graphene and reduced graphene oxide dual-layer for electrochemical determination of beta-amyloid biomarkers. MicrochimicaActa 187:1

    Google Scholar 

  179. Shang NG, Papakonstantinou P, McMullan M, Chu M, Stamboulis A, Potenza A, Dhesi SS, Marchetto H (2008) Catalyst-free efficient growth, orientation and biosensing properties of multilayer graphene nanoflake films with sharp edge planes. Adv func Mater 18:3506–3514

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  180. Shao Y, Zhang S, Engelhard MH, Li G, Shao G, Wang Y, Liu J, Aksay IA, Lin Y (2010) Nitrogen-doped graphene and its electrochemical applications. J Mater Chem 20:7491–7496

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  181. Sheng Z, Song L, Zheng J, Hu D, He M, Zheng M, Gao G, Gong P, Zhang P, Ma Y, Cai L (2013) Protein-assisted fabrication of nano-reduced graphene oxide for combined in vivo photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy. Biomater 34:5236–5243

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  182. Shi S, Yang K, Hong H, Valdovinos HF, Nayak TR, Zhang Y, Theuer CP, Barnhart TE, Liu Z, Cai W (2013a) Tumor vasculature targeting and imaging in living mice with reduced graphene oxide. Biomater 34:3002–3009

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  183. Shi X, Gong H, Li Y, Wang C, Cheng L, Liu Z (2013b) Graphene-based magnetic plasmonic nanocomposite for dual bioimaging and photothermal therapy. Biomater 34:4786–4793

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  184. Shi J, Wang L, Zhang J, Ma R, Gao J, Liu Y, Zhang C, Zhang Z (2014) A tumor-targeting near-infrared laser-triggered drug delivery system based on GO@ Ag nanoparticles for chemo-photothermal therapy and X-ray imaging. Biomater 35:5847–5861

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  185. Shi X, Wang Y, Sun H, Chen Y, Zhang X, Xu J, Zhai G (2019) Heparin-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for curcumin delivery: in vitro, in vivo and molecular dynamics simulation study. Biomater Sci 7:1011–1027

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  186. Shioyama H (2001) Cleavage of graphite to graphene. J Mater Sci Lett 20:499–500

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  187. Sikkandhar MG, Nedumaran AM, Ravichandar R, Singh S, Santhakumar I, Goh ZC, Mishra S, Archunan G, Gulyás B, Padmanabhan P (2017) Theranostic probes for targeting tumor microenvironment: an overview. Int J Mol Sci 18:1036

    PubMed Central  Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  188. Somani PR, Somani SP, Umeno M (2006) Planer nano-graphenes from camphor by CVD. Chem Phys Lett 430:56–59

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  189. Some S, Gwon AR, Hwang E, Bahn GH, Yoon Y, Kim Y, Kim SH, Bak S, Yang J, Jo DG, Lee H (2014) Cancer therapy using ultrahigh hydrophobic drug-loaded graphene derivatives. Sci Rep 4:6314

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  190. Song E, Han W, Li C, Cheng D, Li L, Liu L, Zhu G, Song Y, Tan W (2014) Hyaluronic acid-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids as nanocarriers for targeted and pH-responsive anticancer drug delivery. ACS Appl Mater Inter 6:11882–11890

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  191. Song S, Shen H, Wang Y, Chu X, Xie J, Zhou N, Shen J (2020) Biomedical application of graphene: from drug delivery, tumor therapy, to theranostics. Colloids Surf B 185:110596

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  192. Sood K, Kaur J, Singh H, Kumar Arya S, Khatri M (2019) Comparative toxicity evaluation of graphene oxide (GO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on Drosophila melanogaster. Toxicol Rep 6:768–781

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  193. Souza JP, Venturini FP, Santos F, Zucolotto V (2018) Chronic toxicity in Ceriodaphniadubia induced by graphene oxide. Chemosphere 190:218–224

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  194. Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GH, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006a) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442:282–286

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  195. Stankovich S, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006b) Synthesis and exfoliation of isocyanate-treated graphene oxide nanoplatelets. Carbon 44:3342–3347

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  196. Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Compton OC, Dommett GHB, Ruoff RS, Nguyen ST (2010) Systematic post-assembly modification of graphene oxide paper with primary alkylamines. Chem Mater 22:4153–4157

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  197. Stubbs M, McSheehy PM, Griffiths JR, Bashford CL (2000) Causes and consequences of tumour acidity and implications for treatment. Mol Med Today 6:15–19

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  198. Sun X, Liu Z, Welsher K, Robinson JT, Goodwin A, Zaric S, Dai H (2008) Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery. Nano Res 1:203–212

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  199. Sun Z, Kohama SI, Zhang Z, Lomeda JR, Tour JM (2010) Soluble graphene through edge-selective functionalization. Nano Res 3:117–125

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  200. Sun H, Cao L, Lu L (2011) Magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: one step solvothermal synthesis and use as a novel platform for removal of dye pollutants. Nano Res 4:550–562

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  201. Su J, Zhang X, Tong X, Wang X, Yang P, Yao F, Guo R, Yuan C (2020) Preparation of graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield by a facile one-step method and applications for cell imaging. Mater Lett 127806

  202. Sunny PC, Stephen L, Gaurav L, Cassandra S, Chowdhury MullickSayan&Sitharaman B. (2016) Graphene-based platforms for cancer therapeutics; 101 Ther. Deliv 7:101–116

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  203. Szmidt M, Sawosz E, Urbańska K, Jaworski S, Kutwin M, Hotowy A, Wierzbicki M, Grodzik M, Lipińska L, Chwalibog A (2016) Toxicity of different forms of graphene in a chicken embryo model. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:19940–19948

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  204. Tanaka H, Arima R, Fukumori M, Tanaka D, Negishi R, Kobayashi Y, Kasai S, Yamada TK, Ogawa T (2015) Method for controlling electrical properties of single-layer graphene nanoribbons via adsorbed planar molecular nanoparticles. Sci Rep 5:12341

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  205. Tian B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng L, Liu Z (2011) Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. ACS Nano 5:7000–7009

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  206. Tian Z, Yao X, Ma K, Niu X, Grothe J, Xu Q, Liu L, Kaskel S, Zhu Y (2017) Metal–organic framework/graphene quantum dot nanoparticles used for synergistic chemo-and photothermal therapy. ACS Omega 2:1249–1258

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  207. Turcheniuk K, Dumych T, Bilyy R, Turcheniuk V, Bouckaert J, Vovk V, Chopyak V, Zaitsev V, Mariot P, Prevarskaya N, Boukherroub R (2016) Plasmonic photothermal cancer therapy with gold nanorods/reduced graphene oxide core/shell nanocomposites. RSC Adv 6:1600–1610

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  208. Vasile E, Pandele AM, Andronescu C, Selaru A, Dinescu S, Costache M, Hanganu A, Raicopol MD, Teodorescu M (2019) Hema-functionalized graphene oxide: a versatile nanofiller for poly (propylene fumarate)-based hybrid materials. Sci Rep 9:1–5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  209. Verdejo R, Bernal MM, Romasanta LJ, Lopez-Manchado MA (2011) Graphene filled polymer nanocomposites. J Mater Chem 21:3301–3310

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  210. Viculis LM, Mack JJ, Kaner RB (2003) A chemical route to carbon nanoscrolls. Science 299: 1361

  211. Wallace PR (1947) The band structure of graphite. Phys Rev 71:622–634

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  212. Walters F, Rozhko S, Buckley D, Ahmadi ED, Ali M, Tehrani Z, Mitchell J, Burwell G, Liu Y, Kazakova O, Guy OJ (2020) Real-time detection of hepatitis B surface antigen using a hybrid graphene-gold nanoparticle biosensor. 2D Materials 7:024009

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  213. Wang Z, Zhou X, Zhang J, Boey F, Zhang H (2009) Direct electrochemical reduction of single-layer graphene oxide and subsequent functionalization with glucose oxidase. J Phys Chem C 113:14071–14075

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  214. Wang K, Ruan J, Song H, Zhang J, Wo Y, Guo S, Cui D (2011a) Biocompatibility of graphene oxide. Nanoscale Res Lett 6:8–15

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  215. Wang Z, Zhang J, Chen P, Zhou X, Yang Y, Wu S, Niu L, Han Y, Wang L, Boey F, Zhang Q (2011b) Label-free, electrochemical detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus DNA with reduced graphene oxide-modified electrodes. Biosens Bioelectron 26:3881–3886

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  216. Wang C, Mallela J, Garapati US, Ravi S, Chinnasamy V, Girard Y, Howell M, Mohapatra S (2013a) A chitosan-modified graphene nanogel for noninvasive controlled drug release. Nanomed Nanotech Bio Med 9:903–911

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  217. Wang C, Ravi S, Garapati US, Das M, Howell M, Mallela J, Alwarappan S, Mohapatra SS, Mohapatra S (2013b) Multifunctional chitosan magnetic-graphene (CMG) nanoparticles: a theranostic platform for tumor-targeted co-delivery of drugs, genes and MRI contrast agents. J Mater Chem B 1:4396–4405

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  218. Wang A, Pu K, Dong B, Liu Y, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Duan W, Zhu Y (2013c) Role of surface charge and oxidative stress in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of grapheneoxide towards human lung fibroblast cells. J Appl Toxicol 33:1156–1164

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  219. Wang C, Wu C, Zhou X, Han T, Xin X, Wu J, Zhang J, Guo S (2013d) Enhancing cell nucleus accumulation and DNA cleavage activity of anti-cancer drug via graphene quantum dots. Sci Rep 3:2852

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  220. Wang Y, Wang H, Liu D, Song S, Wang X, Zhang H (2013e) Graphene oxide covalently grafted upconversion nanoparticles for combined NIR mediated imaging and photothermal/photodynamic cancer therapy. Biomater 34:7715–7724

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  221. Wang Y, Wang K, Zhao J, Liu X, Bu J, Yan X, Huang R (2013f) Multifunctional mesoporous silica-coated graphene nanosheet used for chemo-photothermal synergistic targeted therapy of glioma. J ACS 135:4799–4804

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  222. Wang C, Chen B, Zou M, Cheng G (2014a) Cyclic RGD-modified chitosan/graphene oxide polymers for drug delivery and cellular imaging. Colloids Surf B 122:332–340

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  223. Wang S, Zhang Q, Luo XF, Li J, He H, Yang F, Di Y, Jin C, Jiang XG, Shen S, Fu DL (2014b) Magnetic graphene-based nanotheranostic agent for dual-modality mapping guided photothermal therapy in regional lymph nodal metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Biomater 35:9473–9483

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  224. Wang Y, Huang R, Liang G, Zhang Z, Zhang P, Yu S, Kong J (2014c) MRI-visualized, dual-targeting, combined tumor therapy using magnetic graphene-based mesoporous silica. Small 10:109–116

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  225. Wang G, Ma Y, Wei Z, Qi M (2016) Development of multifunctional cobalt ferrite/graphene oxide nanocomposites for magnetic resonance imaging and controlled drug delivery. Chem Eng J 289:150–160

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  226. Wang Z, ColombiCiacchi L, Wei G (2017) Recent advances in the synthesis of graphene-based nanomaterials for controlled drug delivery. Appl Sci 7:1175

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  227. Wang J, Cheng Y, Chen L, Zhu T, Ye K, Jia C, Wang H, Zhu M, Fan C, Mo X (2019) In vitro and in vivo studies of electroactive reduced graphene oxide-modified nanofiber scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration. Actabiomaterialia 84:98–113

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  228. Wang Y, Sun G, Gong Y, Zhang Y, Liang X, Yang L (2020a) Functionalized folate-modified graphene oxide/PEI siRNA nanocomplexes for targeted ovarian cancer gene therapy. Nanoscale Res Lett 15:1–1

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  229. Wang Z, Chen D, Gu B, Gao B, Wang T, Guo Q, Wang G (2020b) Biomass-derived nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots with color-tunable emission for sensing, fluorescence ink and multicolor cell imaging. Spectrochim Acta Part A 227:117671

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  230. Wan X, Chen K, Liu D, Chen J, Miao Q, Xu J (2012) High-quality large-area graphene from dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chem Mater 24:3906–3915

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  231. Wan H, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Xu G, Huang G, Ji Y, Xiong Z, Zhang Q, Dong J, Zhang W, Zou H (2014) Facile fabrication of a near-infrared responsive nanocarrier for spatiotemporally controlled chemo-photothermal synergistic cancer therapy. Nanoscale 6:8743–8753

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  232. Ward MA, Georgiou TK (2011) Thermo-responsive polymers for biomedical applications. Polymers 3:1215–1242

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  233. Warner JH, Schaffel F, Rummeli M, Bachmatiuk A (2012) Graphene: fundamentals and emergent applications. Elsevier, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  234. Wate PS, Banerjee SS, Jalota-Badhwar A, Mascarenhas RR, Zope KR, Khandare J, Misra RD (2012) Cellular imaging using biocompatible dendrimer-functionalized graphene oxide-based fluorescent probe anchored with magnetic nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 23:415101

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  235. Watanabe M, Takamura H, Sugai H (2009) Preparation of ultrafine Fe–Pt alloy and Au nanoparticle colloids by KrF excimer laser solution photolysis. Nanoscale Res Lett 4:565–573

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  236. Wen Y, Xing F, He S, Song S, Wang L, Long Y, Li D, Fan C (2010) A graphene-based fluorescent nanoprobe for silver (I) ions detection by using graphene oxide and a silver-specific oligonucleotide. Chem Commun 46:2596–2598

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  237. Wei G, Yan M, Dong R, Wang D, Zhou X, Chen J, Hao J (2012) Covalent modification of reduced graphene oxide by means of diazonium chemistry and use as a drug-delivery system. Chemistry 18:14708–14716

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  238. Wei M, Gao Y, Li X, Serpe MJ (2017) Stimuli-responsive polymers and their applications. Polymer Chem 8:127–143

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  239. Wu ZS, Ren W, Gao L, Liu B, Jiang C, Cheng HM (2009) Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers. Carbon 47:493–499

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  240. Wu J, Wang YS, Yang XY, Liu YY, Yang JR, Yang R, Zhang N (2012) Graphene oxide used as a carrier for adriamycin can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Nanotechnol 23:355101

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  241. Wu S, Zhao X, Cui Z, Zhao C, Wang Y, Du L, Li Y (2014) Cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene oxide loaded with doxorubicin on human multiple myeloma cells. Int J Nanomed 9:1413–1421

    Google Scholar 

  242. Wu J, Zheng A, Liu Y, Jiao D, Zeng D, Wang X, Cao L, Jiang X (2019) Enhanced bone regeneration of the silk fibroin electrospun scaffolds through the modification of the graphene oxide functionalized by BMP-2 peptide. Int J Nanomed 14:733

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  243. Xie X, Zhao K, Xu X, Zhao W, Liu S, Zhu Z, Li M, Shi Z, Shao Y (2010) Study of heterogeneous electron transfer on the graphene/self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode by electrochemical approaches. J Phys Chem C 114:14243–14250

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  244. Xie J, Ming Z, Li H, Yang H, Yu B, Wu R, Liu X, Bai Y, Yang ST (2016) Toxicity of graphene oxide to white rot fungus Phanerochaetechrysosporium. Chemosphere 151:324–331

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  245. Xu Z, Wang S, Li Y, Wang M, Shi P, Huang X (2014) Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with biocompatible poly (ethylene glycol) for delivery of paclitaxel. ACS Appl Mater Inter 6:17268–17276

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  246. Xu S, Zhang Z, Chu M (2015) Long-term toxicity of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets: effects on female mouse reproductive ability and offspring development. Biomaterials 54:188–200

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  247. Xu B, Huang J, Ding L, Cai J (2020) Graphene oxide-functionalized long period fiber grating for ultrafast label-free glucose biosensor. Mater Sci Eng C 107:110329

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  248. Yan X, Cui X, Li B, Li LS (2010) Large, solution-processable graphene quantum dots as light absorbers for photovoltaics. Nano Lett 10:1869–1873

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  249. Yan L, Zheng YB, Zhao F, Li S, Gao X, Xu B, Weiss PS, Zhao Y (2012) Chemistry and physics of a single atomic layer: strategies and challenges for functionalization of graphene and graphene-based materials. Chem Soc Rev 41:97–114

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  250. Yang X, Zhang X, Ma Y, Huang Y, Wang Y, Chen Y (2009) Superparamagnetic graphene oxide–Fe3O4 nanoparticles hybrid for controlled targeted drug carriers. J Mater Chem 19:2710–2714

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  251. Yang K, Wan J, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Lee ST, Liu Z (2010a) In vivo pharmacokinetics, long-term biodistribution, and toxicology of PEGylated graphene in mice. ACS Nano 5:516–522

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  252. Yang K, Zhang SA, Zhang GX, Sun XM, Lee ST, Liu ZA (2010b) Graphene in mice: ultrahigh in vivo tumor uptake and efficient photothermal therapy. Nano Lett 10:3318–3323

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  253. Yang X, Wang Y, Huang X, Ma Y, Huang Y, Yang R, Chen Y (2011) Multi-functionalized graphene oxide based anticancer drug-carrier with dual-targeting function and pH-sensitivity. J Mater Chem 21:3448–3454

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  254. Yang K, Hu L, Ma X, Ye S, Cheng L, Shi X, Li C, Li Y, Liu Z (2012a) Multimodal imaging guided photothermal therapy using functionalized graphene nanosheets anchored with magnetic nanoparticles. Adv Mater 24:1868–1872

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  255. Yang K, Wan J, Zhang S, Tian B, Zhang Y, Liu Z (2012b) The influence of surface chemistry and size nanoscale graphene oxide on photothermal therapy of cancer using ultra-low laser power. Biomater 33:2206–2214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  256. Yang Y, Zhang YM, Chen Y, Zhao D, Chen JT, Liu Y (2012c) Construction of a graphene oxide based noncovalent multiple nanosupramolecular assembly as a scaffold for drug delivery. Chemistry 18:4208–4215

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  257. Yang HW, Hua MY, Hwang TL, Lin KJ, Huang CY, Tsai RY, Ma CC, Hsu PH, Wey SP, Hsu PW, Chen PY (2013a) Non-invasive synergistic treatment of brain tumors by targeted chemotherapeutic delivery and amplified focused ultrasound-hyperthermia using magnetic nanographene oxide. Adv Mater 25:3605–3611

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  258. Yang HW, Lu YJ, Lin KJ, Hsu SC, Huang CY, She SH, Liu HL, Lin CW, Xiao MC, Wey SP, Chen PY (2013b) EGRF conjugated PEGylated nanographene oxide for targeted chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. Biomater 34:7204–7214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  259. Yang X, Zhao N, Xu FJ (2014) Biocleavable graphene oxide based-nanohybrids synthesized via ATRP for gene/drug delivery. Nanoscale 6:6141–6150

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  260. Yang K, Feng L, Liu Z (2016) Stimuli responsive drug delivery systems based on nano-graphene for cancer therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 105:228–241

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  261. Yao X, Niu X, Ma K, Huang P, Grothe J, Kaskel S, Zhu Y (2017) Graphene quantum dots-capped magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a multifunctional platform for controlled drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, and photothermal therapy. Small 13:1602225

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  262. Yogesh GK, Shuaib EP, Roopmani P, Gumpu MB, Krishnan UM, Sastikumar D (2020) Synthesis, characterization and bioimaging application of laser-ablated graphene-oxide nanoparticles (nGOs). Diamond Related Mater 104:107733

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  263. Yi L, Zhang Y, Shi X, Du X, Wang X, Yu A, Zhai G (2019) Recent progress of functionalised graphene oxide in cancer therapy. J Drug Target 27:125–144

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  264. Yin D, Li Y, Lin H, Guo B, Du Y, Li X, Jia H, Zhao X, Tang J, Zhang L (2013) Functional graphene oxide as a plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA carrier inhibits mouse malignant melanoma growth in vivo. Nanotech 24:105102

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  265. Yu XZ, Hwang CG, Jozwiak CM, Köhl A, Schmid AK, Lanzara A (2011) New synthesis method for the growth of epitaxial graphene. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 184:100–106

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  266. Yu J, Chu X, Hou Y (2014) Stimuli-responsive cancer therapy based on nanoparticles. Chem Commun 50:11614–11630

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  267. Yu W, Sisi L, Haiyan Y, Jie L (2020) Progress in the functional modification of graphene/graphene oxide: a review. RSC Adv 10:15328–15345

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  268. Yue HY, Zhang HJ, Huang S, Lu XX, Gao X, Song SS, Wang Z, Wang WQ, Guan EH (2020) Highly sensitive and selective dopamine biosensor using Au nanoparticles-ZnO nanocone arrays/graphene foam electrode. Mater Sci Eng C 108:110490

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  269. Zaboli M, Raissi H, Moghaddam NR, Farzad F (2020) Probing the adsorption and release mechanisms of cytarabine anticancer drug on/from dopamine functionalized graphene oxide as a highly efficient drug delivery system. J Mol Liquids 112458

  270. Zhan D, Sun L, Ni ZH, Liu L, Fan XF, Wang Y, Yu T, Lam YM, Huang W, Shen ZX (2010) FeCl3-based few-layer graphene intercalation compounds: single linear dispersion electronic band structure and strong charge transfer doping. Adv Funct Mater 20:3504–3509

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  271. Zhang Y, Small JP, Pontius WV, Kim P (2005) Fabrication and electric-field-dependent transport measurements of mesoscopic graphite devices. Appl Phys Lett 86:073104

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  272. Zhang L, Xia J, Zhao Q, Liu L, Zhang Z (2010a) Functional graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for controlled loading and targeted delivery of mixed anticancer drugs. Small 6:537–544

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  273. Zhang Y, Ali SF, Dervishi E, Xu Y, Li Z, Casciano D, Biris AS (2010b) Cytotoxicity effects of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes in neural phaeochromocytoma-derived PC12 cells. ACS Nano 4:3181–3186

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  274. Zhang M, Cao Y, Chong Y, Ma Y, Zhang H, Deng Z, Hu C, Zhang Z (2013) Graphene oxide based theranostic platform for T 1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. ACS Appl Mater Inter 5:13325–13332

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  275. Zhang LN, Deng HH, Lin FL, Xu XW, Weng SH, Liu AL, Lin XH, Xia XH, Chen W (2014a) In situ growth of porous platinum nanoparticles on graphene oxide for colorimetric detection of cancer cells. Anal Chem 86:2711–2718

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  276. Zhang Y, Petibone D, Xu Y, Mahmood M, Karmakar A, Casciano D, Ali S, Biris AS (2014b) Toxicity and efficacy of carbon nanotubes and graphene: the utility of carbon-based nanoparticles in nanomedicine. Drug Metab Rev 46:232–246

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  277. Zhang YM, Cao Y, Yang Y, Chen JT, Liu Y (2014c) A small-sized graphene oxide supramolecular assembly for targeted delivery of camptothecin. Chem Commun 50:13066–13069

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  278. Zhang N, Chow SK, Leung KS, Cheung WH (2017a) Ultrasound as a stimulus for musculoskeletal disorders. J Orthopaedic Transl 9:52–59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  279. Zhang Q, Wu Z, Li N, Pu Y, Wang B, Zhang T, Tao J (2017b) Advanced review of graphene-based nanomaterials in drug delivery systems: synthesis, modification, toxicity and application. Mater Sci Eng C 77:1363–1375

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  280. Zhang W, Yin B, Xin Y, Li L, Ye G, Wang J, Shen J, Cui X, Yang Q (2019a) Preparation, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of graphene oxide-reinforced chitin monofilament absorbable surgical sutures. Marine Drugs 17:210

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  281. Zhang YP, Ma JM, Yang YS, Ru JX, Liu XY, Ma Y, Guo HC (2019b) Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from marigold for detection of Fe3+ ion and bioimaging. Spectrochim Acta Part A 217:60–67

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  282. Zhao YL, Stoddart JF (2009) Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes. AccChem Res 42:1161–1171

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  283. Zhao X, Liu L, Li X, Zeng J, Jia X, Liu P (2014) Biocompatible graphene oxide nanoparticle-based drug delivery platform for tumor microenvironment-responsive triggered release of doxorubicin. Langmuir 30:10419–10429

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  284. Zhao Z, Yang H, Zhao W, Deng S, Zhang K, Deng R, He Q, Gao H, Li J (2020) Graphene-nucleic acid biointerface engineered biosensors with tunable dynamic range. J Mater Chem B

  285. Zhou K, Zhu Y, Yang X, Luo J, Li C, Luan S (2010) A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Au–graphene–HRP–chitosan biocomposites. Electrochim Acta 55:3055–3060

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  286. Zhou L, Wei S, Ge X, Zhou J, Jiang H, Li F, Shen J (2014) Combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using graphene oxide as drug delivery system. J Photochem Photobiol B 13(5):7–16

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  287. Zheng XT, Li CM (2012) Restoring basal planes of graphene oxides for highly efficient loading and delivery of β-lapachone. Mol Pharma 9:615–621

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  288. Zhi F, Dong H, Jia X, Guo W, Lu H, Yang Y, Ju H, Zhang X, Hu Y (2013) Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro. PLoS ONE 8:e60034

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  289. Zhong Z, Wu W, Wang D, Wang D, Shan J, Qing Y, Zhang Z (2010) Nanogold-enwrapped graphene nanocomposites as trace labels for sensitivity enhancement of electrochemical immunosensors in clinical immunoassays: carcinoembryonic antigen as a model. Biosens Bioelectron 25:2379–2383

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  290. Zhu Y, Murali S, Cai W, Li X, Suk JW, Potts JR, Ruoff RS (2010) Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater 22:3906–3924

    CAS  PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  291. Zitka O, Skalickova S, Gumulec J, Masarik M, Adam V, Hubalek J, Trnkova L, Kruseova J, Eckschlager T, Kizek R (2012) Redox status expressed as GSH: GSSG ratio as a marker for oxidative stress in paediatrictumour patients. Oncol Lett 4:1247–1253

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This review article does not receive any funding from any source. The article's work is entirely bias-free. We want to extend our appreciation to Dr. Sushil Mishra, Integral Biosciences, Noida, India, and Dr. Sandeep K Shukla, Galgotias University, India for their valuable help in plagiarism checking.

Funding

The authors declare that they do not receive any funding.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amit Singh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of this article.

Statement of animal and human rights

In this article, the authors have performed no experiments with any of the animal and human subjects.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jha, R., Singh, A., Sharma, P.K. et al. Graphene-based nanomaterial system: a boon in the era of smart nanocarriers. J. Pharm. Investig. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-021-00513-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Graphene
  • Smart nano-carrier molecule
  • Graphene-based system design
  • Functionalization
  • Toxicity of graphene
  • Applications