Agricultural Research

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 152–157 | Cite as

Nutritional Evaluation of Durum Wheat with Respect to Organic and Chemical Fertilizers

  • Nitesh S. Litoriya
  • Arpan R. Modi
  • J. G. Talati
Full-Length Research Article


Organic food is considered as safe as and healthier than their conventionally grown counterpart, but superiority over nutrient content is still undecided between these. Wheat, one of the main staple foods and a significant source of nutrients, is essential for human health. It is an input-intensive crop and requires a sizeable amount of organic and chemical fertilizers. Determination of the effect of organic and chemical sources on the nutritional quality of durum wheat (cv. GW-1) was the main objective of this study. The comparison of nutritional quality of organically and chemically amended wheat was made on many biochemical parameters (moisture, carbohydrate, oil, protein, ash, fiber, water-soluble vitamins), anti-nutrients (heavy metals and phytic acid) and mineral composition (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu). The results revealed that durum wheat supplemented with chemical fertilizer recorded significantly higher amount of anti-nutritional factors, but lower in protein, zinc and water-soluble vitamin content. The present investigation reflected that durum wheat grown under organic fertilizers were at par with chemically supplemented wheat for nutritional quality, but were safer due to the significantly lower content of anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, consumption of organically grown durum wheat is able to supply nutrients and simultaneously reduces the risk of exposure to many harmful chemicals.


Duram wheat Triticum durum Nutritional quality Organic fertilizer Food safety 



The authors are thankful to Dr. M. S. Jakasania, Regional Research station (wheat), AAU, Anand for providing the seed materials.


  1. 1.
    Kadam SD, Shukla YM, Sapre S, Talati JG (2010) Characterization of proteins from grain amaranthus cultivars. Indian J Agric Biochem 23(1):57–59Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Elsheikh EAE, Elzidany AA (1997) Effect of Rhizobium inoculation, organic and chemical fertilizers on proximate composition, in vitro protein digestibility, tannin and sulphur content of faba beans. Food Chem 59(1):41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Litoriya NS, Gandhi K, Talati JG (2014) Nutritional composition of different chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties. Indian J Agric Biochem 27(1):91–92Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ministry of Agriculture (2011) Area, production and yield of principle crops. In: Agricultural statistics at a glance, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Accessed 11 Nov 2014
  5. 5.
    Bhatnagar R, Shukla YM, Talati JG (2007) Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences. Department of Biochemistry, A.A.U, AnandGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davari MR, Sharma SN, Mirzakhani M (2012) The effect of combinations of organic materials and bio-fertilizers on productivity, grain quality, nutrient uptake and economics in organic farming of wheat. J Org Syst 7(2):26–35Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28(3):350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ekinci R, Kadakal C (2005) Determination of seven water soluble vitamins in tarhana, a traditional Turkish cereal food, by high performance liquid chromatography. Acta Chromatogr 15:289–297Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    European Commission (2001) Commission Regulation (EC) No. 466/2001 of March 8, 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Commun 77:1–13Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hasan MA, Kamal AMA (1998) Effect of fertilizers on grain yield and grain protein content of wheat. J Natl Sci Found Sri Lanka 26(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haug W, Lantzech HJ (1983) Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. J Sci Food Agric 34:1423–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Langenkamper G, Zorb C, Seifert M, Mader P, Fretzdorff B, Betsche T (2006) Nutritional quality of organic and conventional wheat. J Appl Bot Food Qual 80(2):150–154Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lindsay WL, Norwell WA (1978) Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42(3):421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore J, Hao Z, Zhou K, Luther M, Costa J, Yu L (2005) Carotenoid, tocopherol, phenolic acid and antioxidant properties of Marylandgrown soft wheat. J Agric Food Chem 53:6649–6657CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stracke BA, Eitel J, Watzl B, Mader P, Rufer CE (2009) Influence of the production method on phytochemical concentrations in whole wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a comparative study. J Agric Food Chem 57:10116–10121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    U.S. National Research Council, Food and Nutrition Board (1989) Recommended dietary allowances, 10th edn. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    World Health Organization (1982) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants (twenty-sixth report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives). WHO technical report series, No. 683, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zaccone C, Di Caterina R, Rotunno T, Quinto M (2010) Soil-farming system-food-health: effect of conventional and organic fertilizers on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) content in semolina samples. Soil Tillage Res 107:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zorb C, Langenkamper G, Betsche T, Niehaus K, Barsch A (2006) Metabolite profiling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from organic and conventional agriculture. J Agric Food Chem 54:8301–8306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zuchowski J, Krzysztof J, Lukasz P, Wieslaw O (2011) Phenolic acid concentrations in organically and conventionally cultivated spring and winter wheat. J Sci Food Agric 91:1089–1095CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitesh S. Litoriya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arpan R. Modi
    • 3
  • J. G. Talati
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, B A College of AgricultureAnand Agricultural UniversityAnandIndia
  2. 2.AINP on Pesticide Residues, ICAR Unit-9Anand Agricultural UniversityAnandIndia
  3. 3.Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Institute of Plant SciencesAgricultural Research Organization (ARO)Rishon LeZiyyonIsrael

Personalised recommendations