Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 467–477 | Cite as

Biomaterials for the Treatment of Tendon Injury

  • Sung Eun Kim
  • Jae Gyoon Kim
  • Kyeongsoon ParkEmail author
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Molecular Imaging Techniques



Most tendon injuries are occurring from a gradual wearing and tearing of the tendon tissues from overuse. Such injuries are usually seen in sports, exercising, or daily activities that involve a high mechanical load and weight bearing. However, owing to the lack of both cellularity and blood vessels in tendons, the process of tendon repair is slow and inefficient. Although various conservative (non-surgical) and surgical management options are conducted by the clinicians, a gold standard of these approaches does not exist. In this regard, the treatment of tendon injuries is challenging.


Here, we describe the recent advances of biomaterial-based approaches for the treatment of injured tendons.


Regenerative medicine is an emerging multidisciplinary research that specializes in the repair of damaged tendon tissues through the delivery of regenerative factors by biomaterials.


Although current biomaterial-based treatment strategies have shown their potential for tendon healing, future research and clinical applications should focused on finding the optimum combinations of regenerative factors with ideal biomaterials for the repair of tendons.


Tendon healing Delivery Biomaterials Regenerative factor Blood vessel 



This research was supported by The Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the Korean government, MSIP (NRF-2017M3A9F5030273) and by a Korea University Grant (K1710531).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

There were no animal experiments carried out for this article.


  1. 1.
    Aslan H, Kimelman-Bleich N, Pelled G, Gazit D. Molecular targets for tendon neoformation. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:439–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang JH. Mechanobiology of tendon. J Biomech. 2006;39:1563–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sharma P, Maffulli N. Biology of tendon injury: healing, modeling and remodeling. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2006;6:181–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khan KM, Maffulli N. Tendinopathy: an Achilles’ heel for athletes and clinicians. Clin J Sport Med. 1998;8:151–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang J, Wang JH. Characterization of differential properties of rabbit tendon stem cells and tenocytes. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lopez RG, Jung HG. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options. Clin Orthop Surg. 2015;7:1–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rees JD, Stride M, Scott A. Tendons—time to revisit inflammation. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1553–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dean BJ, Gettings P, Dakin SG, Carr AJ. Are inflammatory cells increased in painful human tendinopathy? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50:216–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rodríguez TM, Saldías A, Irigo M, Zamora JV, Perone MJ, Dewey RA. Effect of TGF-β1 stimulation on the secretome of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015;4:894–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lake JE, Ishikawa SN. Conservative treatment of Achilles tendinopathy: emerging techniques. Foot Ankle Clin. 2009;14:663–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schulze-Tanzil G, Al-Sadi O, Wiegand E, Ertel W, Busch C, Kohl B, et al. The role of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines in tendon healing and rupture: new insights. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:337–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma P, Maffulli N. Tendon injury and tendinopathy: healing and repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:187–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Langberg H, Boushel R, Skovgaard D, Risum N, Kjaer M. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediated prostaglandin release regulates blood flow in connective tissue during mechanical loading in humans. J Physiol. 2003;551:683–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riley G. Tendinopathy—from basic science to treatment. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2008;4:82–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moore RA, Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Wiffen PJ, McQuay HJ. Quantitative systematic review of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. BMJ. 1998;316:333–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsai WC, Hsu CC, Chou SW, Chung CY, Chen J, Pang JH. Effects of celecoxib on migration, proliferation and collagen expression of tendon cells. Connect Tissue Res. 2007;48:46–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aström M, Westlin N. No effect of piroxicam on achilles tendinopathy. A randomized study of 70 patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 1992;63:631–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin MT, Chiang CF, Wu CH, Huang YT, Tu YK, Wang TG. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review, pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019;100:336–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nourissat G, Ornetti P, Berenbaum F, Sellam J, Richette P, Chevalier X. Does platelet-rich plasma deserve a role in the treatment of tendinopathy? Joint Bone Spine. 2015;82:230–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dhillon RS, Schwarz EM, Maloney MD. Platelet-rich plasma therapy—future or trend? Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:219.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Middleton KK, Barro V, Muller B, Terada S, Fu FH. Evaluation of the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy involved in the healing of sports-related soft tissue injuries. Iowa Orthop J. 2012;32:150–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Filardo G, Di Matteo B, Kon E, Merli G, Marcacci M. Platelet-rich plasma in tendon-related disorders: results and indications. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018;26:1984–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fitzpatrick J, Bulsara M, Zheng MH. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of tendinopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45:226–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zumstein MA, Rumian A, Thélu CÉ, Lesbats V, O’Shea K, Schaer M, et al. SECEC Research Grant 2008 II: Use of platelet- and leucocyte-rich fibrin (L-PRF) does not affect late rotator cuff tendon healing: a prospective randomized controlled study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2016;25:2–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan R, Gu Y, Ran J, Hu Y, Zheng Z, Zeng M, et al. Intratendon delivery of leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma improves healing compared with leukocyte-rich platelet-rich plasma in a rabbit achilles tendinopathy model. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45:1909–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chahla J, Cinque ME, Piuzzi NS, Mannava S, Geeslin AG, Murray IR, et al. A call for standardization in platelet-rich plasma preparation protocols and composition reporting: A systematic review of the clinical orthopaedic literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99:1769–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee CH, Lee FY, Tarafder S, Kao K, Jun Y, Yang G, et al. Harnessing endogenous stem/progenitor cells for tendon regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2690–701.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Caplan AI, Correa D. The MSC: an injury drugstore. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;9:11–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Omi R, Gingery A, Steinmann SP, Amadio PC, An KN, Zhao C. Rotator cuff repair augmentation in a rat model that combines a multilayer xenograft tendon scaffold with bone marrow stromal cells. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2016;25:469–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Behfar M, Javanmardi S, Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei F. Comparative study on functional effects of allotransplantation of bone marrow stromal cells and adipose derived stromal vascular fraction on tendon repair: a biomechanical study in rabbits. Cell J. 2014;16:263–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Uysal CA, Tobita M, Hyakusoku H, Mizuno H. Adipose-derived stem cells enhance primary tendon repair: biomechanical and immunohistochemical evaluation. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012;65:1712–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carvalho Ade M, Badial PR, Álvarez LE, Yamada AL, Borges AS, Deffune E, et al. Equine tendonitis therapy using mesenchymal stem cells and platelet concentrates: a randomized controlled trial. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013;4:85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen J, Yu Q, Wu B, Lin Z, Pavlos NJ, Xu J, et al. Autologous tenocyte therapy for experimental Achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:2037–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gaspar D, Spanoudes K, Holladay C, Pandit A, Zeugolis D. Progress in cell-based therapies for tendon repair. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2015;84:240–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Violini S, Ramelli P, Pisani LF, Gorni C, Mariani P. Horse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells express embryo stem cell markers and show the ability for tenogenic differentiation by in vitro exposure to BMP-12. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:29.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Walden G, Liao X, Donell S, Raxworthy MJ, Riley GP, Saeed A. A clinical, biological, and biomaterials perspective into tendon injuries and regeneration. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2017;23:44–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rickert M, Wang H, Wieloch P, Lorenz H, Steck E, Sabo D, et al. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of growth and differentiation factor-5 into tenocytes and the healing rat Achilles tendon. Connect Tissue Res. 2005;46:175–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thomopoulos S, Das R, Sakiyama-Elbert S, Silva MJ, Charlton N, Gelberman RH. bFGF and PDGF-BB for tendon repair: controlled release and biologic activity by tendon fibroblasts in vitro. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010;38:225–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PL, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL, Maffulli N. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Correia SI, Pereira H, Silva-Correia J, Van Dijk CN, Espregueira-Mendes J, Oliveira JM, et al. Current concepts: tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications in the ankle joint. J R Soc Interface. 2014;11:20130784.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Longo UG, Lamberti A, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Tissue engineered biological augmentation for tendon healing: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2011;98:31–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guevara-Alvarez A, Schmitt A, Russell RP, Imhoff AB, Buchmann S. Growth factor delivery vehicles for tendon injuries: mesenchymal stem cells and platelet rich plasma. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2014;4:378–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zumstein MA, Rumian A, Lesbats V, Schaer M, Boileau P. Increased vascularization during early healing after biologic augmentation in repair of chronic rotator cuff tears using autologous leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF): a prospective randomized controlled pilot trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014;23:3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bedi A, Maak T, Walsh C, Rodeo SA, Grande D, Dines DM, et al. Cytokines in rotator cuff degeneration and repair. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21:218–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Divani K, Chan O, Padhiar N, Twycross-Lewis R, Maffulli N, Crisp T, et al. Site of maximum neovascularisation correlates with the site of pain in recalcitrant mid-tendon Achilles tendinopathy. Man Ther. 2010;15:463–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tempfer H, Kaser-Eichberger A, Lehner C, Gehwolf R, Korntner S, Kunkel N, et al. Bevacizumab improves achilles tendon repair in a rat model. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;46:1148–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nakamura N, Shino K, Natsuume T, Horibe S, Matsumoto N, Kaneda Y, et al. Early biological effect of in vivo gene transfer of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B into healing patellar ligament. Gene Ther. 1998;5:1165–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Galatz L, Rothermich S, VanderPloeg K, Petersen B, Sandell L, Thomopoulos S. Development of the supraspinatus tendon-to-bone insertion: localized expression of extracellular matrix and growth factor genes. J Orthop Res. 2007;25:1621–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chan BP, Fu SC, Qin L, Rolf C, Chan KM. Supplementation-time dependence of growth factors in promoting tendon healing. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;448:240–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hildebrand KA, Woo SL, Smith DW, Allen CR, Deie M, Taylor BJ, et al. The effects of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on healing of the rabbit medial collateral ligament. An in vivo study. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:549–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hee CK, Dines JS, Dines DM, Roden CM, Wisner-Lynch LA, Turner AS, et al. Augmentation of a rotator cuff suture repair using rhPDGF-BB and a type I bovine collagen matrix in an ovine model. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1630–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hollinger JO, Hart CE, Hirsch SN, Lynch S, Friedlaender GE. Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor: biology and clinical applications. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Uggen C, Dines J, McGarry M, Grande D, Lee T, Limpisvasti O. The effect of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB-coated sutures on rotator cuff healing in a sheep model. Arthroscopy. 2010;26:1456–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lyras DN, Kazakos K, Verettas D, Chronopoulos E, Folaranmi S, Agrogiannis G. Effect of combined administration of transforming growth factor-b1 and insulin-like growth factor I on the mechanical properties of a patellar tendon defect model in rabbits. Acta Orthop Belg. 2010;76:380–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Manning CN, Kim HM, Sakiyama-Elbert S, Galatz LM, Havlioglu N, Thomopoulos S. Sustained delivery of transforming growth factor beta three enhances tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:1099–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tang JB, Cao Y, Zhu B, Xin KQ, Wang XT, Liu PY. Adeno-associated virus-2-mediated bFGF gene transfer to digital flexor tendons significantly increases healing strength. An in vivo study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:1078–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Madry H, Orth P, Cucchiarini M. Gene therapy for cartilage repair. Cartilage. 2011;2:201–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nixon AJ, Watts AE, Schnabel LV. Cell- and gene-based approaches to tendon regeneration. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21:278–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gomes MJ, Martins S, Sarmento B. siRNA as a tool to improve the treatment of brain diseases: Mechanism, targets and delivery. Ageing Res Rev. 2015;21:43–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Docheva D, Müller SA, Majewski M, Evans CH. Biologics for tendon repair. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2015;84:222–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Siu YS, Li L, Leung MF, Lee KL, Li P. Polyethylenimine-based amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles: study of gene delivery and intracellular trafficking. Biointerphases. 2012;7:16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Delalande A, Gosselin MP, Suwalski A, Guilmain W, Leduc C, Berchel M, et al. Enhanced Achilles tendon healing by fibromodulin gene transfer. Nanomedicine. 2015;11:1735–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bolt P, Clerk AN, Luu HH, Kang Q, Kummer JL, Deng ZL, et al. BMP-14 gene therapy increases tendon tensile strength in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:1315–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Majewski M, Betz O, Ochsner PE, Liu F, Porter RM, Evans CH. Ex vivo adenoviral transfer of bone morphogenetic protein 12 (BMP-12) cDNA improves Achilles tendon healing in a rat model. Gene Ther. 2008;15:1139–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Otabe K, Nakahara H, Hasegawa A, Matsukawa T, Ayabe F, Onizuka N, et al. Transcription factor Mohawk controls tenogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo. J Orthop Res. 2015;33:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lu P, Zhang GR, Cai YZ, Heng BC, Ren H, Wang LL, et al. Lentiviral-encoded shRNA silencing of proteoglycan decorin enhances tendon repair and regeneration within a rat model. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:1507–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yin H, Kanasty RL, Eltoukhy AA, Vegas AJ, Dorkin JR, Anderson DG. Non-viral vectors for gene-based therapy. Nat Rev Genet. 2014;15:541–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kay MA, Glorioso JC, Naldini L. Viral vectors for gene therapy: the art of turning infectious agents into vehicles of therapeutics. Nat Med. 2001;7:33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    White LJ, Kirby GT, Cox HC, Qodratnama R, Qutachi O, Rose FR, et al. Accelerating protein release from microparticles for regenerative medicine applications. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013;33:2578–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kuo CK, Marturano JE, Tuan RS. Novel strategies in tendon and ligament tissue engineering: advanced biomaterials and regeneration motifs. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol. 2010;2:20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Toh WS, Loh XJ. Advances in hydrogel delivery systems for tissue regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014;45:690–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chiou GJ, Crowe C, McGoldrick R, Hui K, Pham H, Chang J. Optimization of an injectable tendon hydrogel: the effects of platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived stem cells on tendon healing in vivo. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015;21:1579–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Qiu Y, Lim JJ, Scott L Jr, Adams RC, Bui HT, Temenoff JS. PEG-based hydrogels with tunable degradation characteristics to control delivery of marrow stromal cells for tendon overuse injuries. Acta Biomater. 2011;7:959–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kim SE, Yun YP, Shim KS, Park K, Choi SW, Shin DH, et al. Fabrication of a BMP-2-immobilized porous microsphere modified by heparin for bone tissue engineering. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015;134:453–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Park JW, Yun YP, Park K, Lee JY, Kim HJ, Kim SE, et al. Ibuprofen-loaded porous microspheres suppressed the progression of monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in a rat model. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016;147:265–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lee JY, Kim SE, Yun YP, Choi SW, Jeon DI, Kim HJ, et al. Osteogenesis and new bone formation of alendronate-immobilized porous PLGA microspheres in a rat calvarial defect model. J Ind Eng Chem. 2017;52:277–86.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jeong C, Kim SE, Shim KS, Kim HJ, Song MH, Park K, et al. Exploring the in vivo anti-inflammatory actions of simvastatin-loaded porous microspheres on inflamed tenocytes in a collagenase-induced animal model of achilles tendinitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19:E820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kim SE, Yun YP, Shim KS, Jeon DI, Park K, Kim HJ. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and tendon-healing effects in Achilles tendinopathy of long-term curcumin delivery using porous microspheres. J Ind Eng Chem. 2018;58:123–30.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kishore V, Bullock W, Sun X, Van Dyke WS, Akkus O. Tenogenic differentiation of human MSCs induced by the topography of electrochemically aligned collagen threads. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2137–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Abbah SA, Spanoudes K, O’Brien T, Pandit A, Zeugolis DI. Assessment of stem cell carriers for tendon tissue engineering in pre-clinical models. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5:38.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Moshiri A, Oryan A, Meimandi-Parizi A. Synthesis, development, characterization and effectiveness of bovine pure platelet gel-collagen-polydioxanone bioactive graft on tendon healing. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:1308–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zhang C, Yuan H, Liu H, Chen X, Lu P, Zhu T, et al. Well-aligned chitosan-based ultrafine fibers committed teno-lineage differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells for Achilles tendon regeneration. Biomaterials. 2015;53:716–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chen B, Wang B, Zhang WJ, Zhou G, Cao Y, Liu W. In vivo tendon engineering with skeletal muscle derived cells in a mouse model. Biomaterials. 2012;33:6086–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Naghashzargar E, Farè S, Catto V, Bertoldi S, Semnani D, Karbasi S, et al. Nano/micro hybrid scaffold of PCL or P3HB nanofibers combined with silk fibroin for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2015;13:e156–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lee TH, Kim SE, Lee JY, Kim JG, Park K, Kim HJ. Wrapping of tendon tissues with diclofenac-immobilized polycaprolactone fibrous sheet improves tendon healing in a rabbit model of collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis. J Ind Eng Chem. 2019;73:152–61.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Riggin CN, Schultz SM, Sehgal CM, Soslowsky LJ. Ultrasound evaluation of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-induced changes in vascular response following tendon injury. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2019;45:1841–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sung Eun Kim
    • 1
  • Jae Gyoon Kim
    • 2
  • Kyeongsoon Park
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rare Diseases InstituteKorea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of MedicineKorea University Ansan Hospital, Korea UniversityAnsan-siRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Systems Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology and Natural ResourcesChung-Ang UniversityAnseong-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations