Applied Biological Chemistry

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 113–124 | Cite as

Potential objectives for gibberellic acid and paclobutrazol under salt stress in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench cv. Sofra)

  • Amir Hossein Forghani
  • Abbas Almodares
  • Ali Akbar Ehsanpour


The phytohormones are important in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses by facilitating a wide range of adaptive responses. Application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) as GA3 inhibitors have been shown to affect salinity tolerance through modulating phytohormones. The aim of this study was to find out the potential objectives for GA3 and PBZ as affected by salinity through altering the phytohormones and biochemical parameters in sweet sorghum. Following seed germination, seedlings were cultured in Hoagland nutrient solution containing NaCl supplemented with GA3 and PBZ for 12 days. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis to identify the best target(s) for salinity, GA3, and PBZ in sweet sorghum. Paclobutrazol associated with salt improved root/shoot length, carotenoid, and total chlorophyll by modulating cytokinin (CK)/GA3, indole acetic acid (IAA)/GA3, and total polyamines/GA3 ratios. Gibberellic acid-treated plants not exposed to salinity treatments notably improved phytohormones content such as cytokinin, auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyamines resulting in increased stem growth. Moreover, the main objectives of GA3 were ABA, spermidine, and ABA/GA3 ratio in response to salinity. Though GA3 and PBZ have different roles against salt stress, ABA/GA3 ratio was a similar target of GA3 and PBZ. This work suggests that altered levels of GA3 resulting from PBZ- and GA3-treated plants cause different allocation patterns in sweet sorghum by regulation of CK/GA3, IAA/GA3, and total polyamines/GA3 ratio. Also, accumulation chlorophyll pigments, carotenoids, and water soluble carbohydrates of sorghum plants under salinity regulated by total polyamines/GA3 and ABA/GA3 ratios positively correlated with PBZ application.


Auxin Chlorophyll Cytokinin Hormone cross-talk Polyamines 



Authors thank University of Isfahan and University of Payame Noor for their support. The authors are grateful to Dr Mahmoud-Reza Hemami for statistical analysis and Professor Acram Taji and Dr Mehdi Layeghifard for their critical review of the manuscript. Support of Plant Antioxidants Center of Excellence in University of Isfahan is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Hossein Forghani
    • 1
  • Abbas Almodares
    • 1
  • Ali Akbar Ehsanpour
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran

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